Item Open AccessPress/Journalism (Great Britain and Ireland)(Freie Universität Berlin, 2014) Monger, David; Daniel U; Gatrell P; Janz O; Jones H; Keene J; Kramer A; Nasson BDiscussions of press and propaganda in the British Isles sometimes focus excessively on a few metropolitan newspapers, posters or atrocity stories, and examples of repressive censorship. However, the conduct of the press and propaganda was much more diverse. Factors including locality, the period of the war or the individuals or issues involved produced considerable variety in the approaches to public opinion. While generally obedient to publishing restrictions, large parts of the press maintained their independence and dissent remained possible. The increasing scale of official propaganda was less about secretive manipulation than direct and overt attempts at persuasion. Item Open AccessCan a Robot Smile? Wittgenstein on Facial Expression(Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) Proudfoot, Diane; Racine TP; Slaney KLSome researchers in social robotics aim to build ‘face robots’—machines that interact with human beings (or other robots) by means of facial expression and gesture. They aim, in part, to use these robots to test hypotheses concerning human social and psychological development (and disorders such as autism) in controlled, repeatable experiments. A robot may be said to ‘grin’ and ‘frown’, or to have ‘a smile on its face’. This is not to claim merely that the robot has a certain physical configuration or behaviour; nor is it to say merely that the robot’s ‘facial’ display is, like an emoticon or photograph, a representation of a smile or frown. Although researchers may refrain from claiming that their machines have emotions, they attribute expressive behaviours to them literally and without qualification. Wittgenstein said, however, ‘A smiling mouth smiles only in a human face’. Smiling is a complex conventional gesture. A facial display is a smile only if it has a certain meaning—the meaning that distinguishes a smile from a human grimace or facial tic, and from a chimpanzee’s bared-teeth display. In this paper I explore the implications of Wittgenstein’s remarks on expression for the claim that face robots can smile or frown. Item Open AccessPacific Media(AUT, 2022) Ross, TaraPacific media in Aotearoa New Zealand are in a moment of transition, shaped by two key trends. Like all media, they are grappling with the need to reinvent themselves as multimedia outlets in a digital age. In addition, they are grappling with significant intergenerational change within their target Pacific communities, which are morphing from older Pacific language-speaking migrant populations into younger, English-speaking populations of New Zealand-born Pasifika. Item Open AccessWhy We Shouldn’t Reason Classically, and the Implications for Artificial Intelligence(Springer International Publishing, 2016) Campbell, DouglasIn this chapter I argue that human beings should reason, not in accordance with classical logic, but in accordance with a weaker ‘reticent logic’. I characterize reticent logic, and then show that arguments for the existence of fundamental Gödelian limitations on artificial intelligence are undermined by the idea that we should reason reticently, not classically. Item Open AccessChallenges and innovations in field education in Australia, New Zealand and the United States(Routledge, 2022) Briggs L; Hay K; Medina-Martinez K; Rondon-Jackson R; Fronek P; Maidment, Jane; Fronek P; Smith Rotabi-Casares K Item Metadata onlyAcclimatising to Higher Ground : The Realities of Life of a Pacific Atoll People(2021) Dixon, KeithLife for people on atolls is hard, affected by droughts, rough seas and other adverse climatic conditions, and now, rise in sea level threatens their very inhabitance. No wonder kinship is the foundation of atoll societies, traditional and modern! This book presents a multidisciplinary, retrospective analysis of a Pacific Atoll People living in several countries but held together as a diaspora through notions of kinship. Item Open Access30 Years after the Breakup of the USSR: Russia and Post-Soviet Europe, Narratives and Perceptions(2021) Chaban, Natalia; Mondry, Henrietta; Pavlov, Evgeny; Chaban, Natalia; Mondry, Henrietta; Pavlov, Evgeny Item Open AccessIntroduction: Phonetic fieldwork in southern New Guinea(University of Hawai'i Press, 2021) Lindsey, Kate L.; Schokkin, Dineke; Lindsey, Kate L.; Schokkin, Dineke Item Open AccessPhonetic fieldwork in southern New Guinea(University of Hawai'i Press, 2021) Lindsey, Kate L.; Schokkin, DinekeThis special publication of Language Documentation & Conservation represents a collection of the first available phonetic descriptions of several languages of Southern New Guinea. This area encompasses the southernmost regions of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The languages included in this collection belong to multiple non-related, non-Austronesian, and non-Australian families and include Yelmek (Yelmek-Maklew family; by TINA GREGOR), Ngkolmpu (Yam family; by MATTHEW CARROLL), Nmbo (Yam family; by ERI KASHIMA), Idi (Pahoturi River family; by DINEKE SCHOKKIN and colleagues), Bitur (Trans-New Guinea family; by PHILLIP ROGERS), and Urama (Kiwai family; by JASON BROWN and colleagues). Our issue opens with an overview of the region's phonetic systems by NICHOLAS EVANS (p. 7), and then each language is detailed in turn. First, we will contextualize the format of this special issue and the methodologies used for collecting, analyzing, and archiving the data in Southern New Guinea. Item Open AccessPreverbal directionals as markers of associated motion in Paluai (Austronesian, Oceanic)(De Gruyter Mouton, 2021) Schokkin, Dineke; Guillaume A; Koch HThis chapter discusses the directional paradigm of Paluai, an Oceanic language spoken on Baluan Island in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. It shows that these forms are used as preverbal particles not only to indicate direction with motion verbs, but also associated motion (AM) with non-motion verbs. This paper is the first to claim that an AM system based on deictic directionals can clearly be recognized as a category in an Oceanic language, thus setting a precedent for further study of this phenomenon in this particular subgroup, and perhaps also in the Austronesian language family more generally. Secondly, a systematic comparison is made between directionals used either preceding or following the main verb, and it is argued that only the former are attested as markers of AM. It turns out that iconicity is a strong guiding principle in the usage of directionals in Paluai. Item Open AccessPhonetics and phonology of Idi(University of Hawai'i Press, 2021) Gast V; Evans N; Döhler C; Schokkin, Dineke; Lindsey KL; Schokkin DThis paper provides a first description of the phonetics and phonology of Idi (Pahoturi River; ISO 639-3: idi, glottocode: idii1243) as spoken by about 1,000 people in the villages of Dimsisi and Sibidiri, located in the Morehead District of Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Idi has a fairly large inventory of 21 consonant phonemes and 8 vowel phonemes. As with other languages spoken in the region, the two central vowels show a hybrid status and could be analysed as sometimes phonemic and sometimes epenthetic. Other noteworthy characteristics are the presence of vowel harmony, voiced and voiceless retroflex plosives/affricates, nasality as a “floating” feature, and coarticulated labial-velar plosives, although the latter most likely originated as loan phonemes from Nen. Item Open AccessThe Independent Media of New Zealand(Oxford University, 2021) Kenix, Linda Jean; Nussbaum JNew Zealand has high global measures for press freedom, democracy, and wealth. Historically, if a country has had strong index rankings for press freedom, democracy, and wealth, they also have a robust independent media system. However, that has not been the case in New Zealand where the independent media is lacking, despite the fact the country ranks extremely highly for press freedom, democracy, and wealth. The lack of a robust independent media in New Zealand may be due to five unique reasons: the small size of the country, the reliance on international news, a wariness toward the entire media landscape, the reserved culture of New Zealand, and the flood of content online. Item Open AccessWhat Do We Revitalise?(Cambridge University Press, 2021) King, Jeanette; Olko J; Sallabank JClearly and accessibly written, it is suitable for non-specialists as well as academic researchers and students interested in language revitalization. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core. Item Open AccessWhat do we revitalise?(Cambridge University Press, 2021) Sallabank J; King, Jeanette; Olko J; Sallabank JClearly and accessibly written, it is suitable for non-specialists as well as academic researchers and students interested in language revitalization. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core. Item Open AccessCan distant water douse fire? NATO in the geopolitics of the South China Sea Region(NATO Association of Canada, 2020) Tan A; McQuade J; Lao B Item Open AccessSubstitute Parenting(Cambridge University Press, 2020) Perry G; Daly M; Workman L; Reader W; Barkow JHThe initially puzzling phenomenon of substitute parenting in Homo sapiens falls into three broad categories that require distinct treatments. One major subtype of substitute parenting entails genetic relatives, especially grandparents, stepping up to replace parents who cannot or will not care for their children, and promoting their own inclusive fitness by so doing. A second subtype is stepparenthood, which is most persuasively interpreted as a component of "mating effort". Both stepparenting and replacement care by genetic relatives are cross-culturally ubiquitous and almost certainly ancient, and the behavior of substitute parents in these contexts is therefore likely to exhibit evolutionary adaptation to the characteristic opportunities and pitfalls associated with these recurrent social dilemmas. The same cannot be said, however, for the third major subtype of substitute parenting, namely adoption by non-relatives. Families sometimes adopt children to fill otherwise vacant social and familial roles or niches, and they foster or adopt children as a component of reciprocity and citizenship within close-knit communities. It is the modern practice of "adoption by stranger" that presents the greatest challenge to a simple conception of human beings as evolved fitness maximizers, by necessitating that we ask why large numbers of people elect to treat unrelated children as if they were their own. Each of these three broad categories of substitute parenting and their possible explanations will be discussed in a subsequent section of this chapter. Item Open Access‘Here’ and ‘back home’: Imagining diasporic connections through Aotearoa New Zealand’s Pacific news media(Palgrave Macmillan, 2021) Ross T; Gladkova A; Jamil SThis case study of Pacific news media and their audiences demonstrates how ethnic news media use discourses and practices of ‘homeland’ and ‘diaspora’ to build identity and community belonging, and thereby serve a connective function for Pacific audiences. By highlighting key differences in media producers’ and audiences’ orientation to ideas of ‘home’, ‘homeland’ and the Pacific diaspora, however, this chapter further argues that a broader range of identities might be needed to better serve the youth of multigenerational migrant groups such as Pacific peoples in New Zealand, who appear to orient themselves to and across more diverse ethnic and transnational identities than is assumed by media producers. Item Open AccessThe contribution of field education towards professional capability(Routledge, 2021) Maidment J; Hay K; Beddoe L; Ballantyne N; Walker S; Egan R; Hill N; Rollins WUsing qualitative data from recent research conducted in Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ) this chapter reports on the centrality of field education for developing social work professional capability and readiness to practice among students and newly qualified social workers (NQSW). Internationally, the social work education sector is mindful of ensuring graduates are well equipped to enter the employment sector with pathways for professional accountability and qualification progression. Professional capability frameworks (PCF) have been developed in a range of jurisdictions to enunciate expectations for students, NQSWs and advanced practitioners. Findings from this research attest to the crucial role of field education in the development of professional capabilities yet illustrate there is significant variability in the quality of placement offerings, learning opportunities accessed and the types of support and supervision experienced by students. Not all graduates felt prepared for the transition from student to worker. The quality of the placement learning experienced during training had significant bearing on student and NQSW sense of confidence and readiness to practice and could in some instances impact on life long career choices. Item Open AccessMental Health, and Rural Practice: A Perspective from New Zealand.(Springer, 2020) Maidment J; Carey T; Gullifer JThis chapter provides an analysis of rural social work in mental health with a particular focus on anti-oppressive practice. The chapter is written within the Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ) context and as such addresses cultural dimensions essential to practice with tangata whenua (indigenous peoples of New Zealand). The chapter begins by summarising some key facts about rural ANZ followed by identification of organisational initiatives that have been developed outside of the statutory mental health sector to address health and wellbeing. Discussion about Te Whare Tapa Wha (Durie, 1994) follows, a paradigm for understanding the holistic dimensions of Māori. Next, antecedents for modern day social work are explained noting the dual functions of social justice imperatives alongside, case management. Mental health social work using Larson’s (2008) seven principles of anti-oppressive practice discussed next to demonstrate the implications for rural social work practice in Aotearoa New Zealand. The relevance and application of ecological systems theory to rural social work is alluded to throughout. The chapter concludes with a case study to consider and a list of key points about how to foster effective rural mental health social work in an ongoing way.