Item Open AccessDonna Awatere on Whiteness in New Zealand: Theoretical Contributions and Contemporary Relevance(Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Library, 2023) Norris AN; De Saxe J; Cooper, GarrickIn June 2022, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern designated the US-based neo-fascist groups The Base and the Proud Boys as terrorist organisations. This designation marks one of the few times white supremacy entered the national political discourse in New Zealand. Discourses of whiteness are mostly theorised in the North American context. However, Donna Awatere’s 1984 examination of White Cultural Imperialism (WCI) in her book Māori Sovereignty advanced an analysis of whiteness in New Zealand that has received limited scholarly attention and is essentially unexplored. This paper reintroduces Awatere’s conceptualisation of WCI. It offers core tenets of WCI and theoretical insights into contemporary discussions of white supremacy that move beyond the focus of individuals and groups to a broader national framework of New Zealand. Two interrelated features of WCI, as defined by Awatere, are the minimisation and normalisation of whiteness and white racial hostility – inherent features that maintain, protect, and reproduce the white institutionalised body as the primary beneficiary of Western European domination that will always thwart Indigenous sovereignty and equality. This paper concludes that Awatere’s articulation of WCI links whiteness in the New Zealand context to the broader network of global white supremacy that offers insight into contemporary criminal justice scholarship. Item Open AccessGoing forward: challenges in Asia-Pacific economic cooperation(2023) Tan, Alex Item Open AccessIdeological Congruence and Satisfaction with Democracy: Case Studies of Australia and New Zealand(2022) Tsai C-H; Tan, AlexA growing body of studies has examined the ideological congruence between citizens and political parties and found that those citizens whose ideology close to the winning party tend to be satisfied with democracy in their country. We extend the causal story of ideological congruence and satisfaction with democracy to Australia and New Zealand. In addition to testing for the direct effect of various socio-psychological factors on citizen satisfaction, we investigate whether the effect of ideological congruence is more significant in specific political system. We find that ideological congruence is likely to have a larger impact on satisfaction with democracy in New Zealand. Our empirical evidence confirms the extant literature but also suggests that ideological closeness matters most with political system that prioritizes representation. This result implies the contextual effect of majoritarian and proportional systems on the functioning of democracy. Item Open AccessProto-Lexicon Size and Phonotactic Knowledge are Linked in Non-Māori Speaking New Zealand Adults(Open Library of the Humanities, 2023) Hay J; Panther, Forrest Andrew; Mattingley, Wakayo; Todd, Simon; King, JeanetteMost people in New Zealand are exposed to the Māori language on a regular basis, but do not speak it. It has recently been claimed that this exposure leads them to create a large proto-lexicon, consisting of implicit memories of words and word parts, without semantic knowledge. This yields sophisticated phonotactic knowledge (Oh et al., 2020). This claim was supported by two tasks in which Non-Māori-Speaking New Zealanders: (i) Distinguished real words from phonotactically matched non-words, suggesting lexical knowledge; (ii) Gave wellformedness ratings of non-words almost indistinguishable from those of fluent Māori speakers, demonstrating phonotactic knowledge.Oh et al. (2020) ran these tasks on separate participants. While they hypothesised that phonotactic and lexical knowledge derived from the proto-lexicon, they did not establish a direct link between them. We replicate the two tasks, with improved stimuli, on the same set of participants. We find a statistically significant link between the tasks: Participants with a larger proto-lexicon (evidenced by performance in the Word Identification Task) show greater sensitivity to phonotactics in the Wellformedness Rating Task. This extends the previously reported results, increasing the evidence that exposure to a language you do not speak can lead to large-scale implicit knowledge about that language. Item Open AccessA case for resurrecting lost species. Review essay of Beth Shapiro’s, “How to Clone a Mammoth: The Science of De-extinction”(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016) Campbell, DouglasThe title of Beth Shapiro’s ‘How to Clone a Mammoth’ contains an implicature: it suggests that it is indeed possible to clone a mammoth, to bring extinct species back from the dead. But in fact Shapiro both denies this is possible, and denies there would be good reason to do it even if it were possible. The de-extinct ‘mammoths’ she speaks of are merely ecological proxies for mammoths—elephants re-engineered for cold-tolerance by the addition to their genomes of a few mammoth genes. Shapiro’s denial that genuine species de-extinction is possible is based on her assumption that resurrected organisms would need to be perfectly indistinguishable from the creatures that died out. In this article I use the example of an extinct New Zealand wattlebird, the huia, to argue—contra Shapiro—that there are compelling reasons to resurrect certain species if it can be done. I then argue—again, contra Shapiro—that synthetically created organisms needn’t be perfectly indistinguishable from their genetic forebears in order for species de-extinction to be successful. Item Open AccessConflict in a Crowded Sea: Risks of Escalation in the South China Sea(2023) Tan, AlexSince the Russian-Ukraine War began in February 2022, speculation about the possibility of China attacking Taiwan has been rife in recent months. Several US and Taiwanese officials, including US Secretary of State Anthony Blinken and Taiwan’s foreign minister Joseph Wu, have voiced concerns about China’s enhanced military capabilities and the possibility of China invading Taiwan as early as 2025 or 2027. However, while the world’s attention remains fixated on the Taiwan Strait, concurrent developments in the South China Sea (SCS) indicate that the possibility of the SCS becoming a flashpoint should not be ignored. Item Open AccessWhere do we stand when we know? Reflections on mātauranga Māori and its translation as “science.”(2021) Mika, CarlA current concern in Aotearoa (New Zealand) centres on the relationship of mātauranga Māori to science. Mātauranga Māori is often defined as Māori knowledge, and thus debates have ensued around whether there are disciplines of mātauranga Māori that can be deemed scientific. In what follows, I limit the discussion to both mātauranga Māori and science as they adopt contrasting stances (other possible words are “orientation” or “tendency” – in Māori, “whakaaro”). Both disciplines are broad and I am aware that there is a complexity to both, such that there is no single agreed-on definition for either. “Stance” seeks to encompass this breadth, and expands the discussion from methods, observations, research findings, and so on, to a more fundamental one which is especially important to mātauranga Māori: an emotional commitment to relating to things in the world in a particular way. As the British philosopher Matthew Ratcliffe has put it, “a shift in stance involves a kind of affective transformation of the world” and different stances “do at least comprise dispositions towards certain kinds of questions, arguments and positions”. Item Open AccessReflections on post‐pandemic university teaching, the corresponding digitalisation of education and the lecture attendance crisis(Wiley, 2023) Uekusa, ShinyaThis short commentary discusses effective university teaching in the context of the pandemic, the corresponding digitalisation of tertiary education, and the recent lecture attendance crisis. By critically reflecting on my own experience as a university educator and as a student in a teacher education course, I suggest that the attendance crisis presents an opportunity to explore effective teaching in a rapidly changing context. To improve our teaching and learning, we can reflect on what students and teachers have gone through and seek to understand who our students are. Item Open AccessAndrei Sen-Senkov and the Visual Poetics of the Global Commonplace(2022) Pavlov, EvgenyThis article considers the visual poetics of the prominent contemporary Russian poet and poetry translator Andrei Sen-Senkov whose work is examined through the Deleuzian lens as a prime example of rhizomatic poetry. Senkov’s poetics is that of the commonplace: working with cultural cliches, and primarily visual material, it embeds very private concerns within a global matrix, with astounding and often theoretically challenging results. Item Open AccessLadysmith Cake Recipe Remixed: A Story about a Culinary Memorial with a Difficult Heritage(2022) Cobley, JoannaThis article considers the connections between food and memory. It examines the food folklore behind the idea of the Ladysmith Cake recipe to demonstrate how specific national confections function as vehicles for collective commemoration and war memory. The recipe’s eponymous title refers to the Siege at Ladysmith (November 1899–February 1900), a significant event in the British Empire’s Second Boer War (October 1899–May 1902) experience – now referred to as the South African War. Therefore, this recipe commemorates New Zealand’s first major offshore military engagement, making Ladysmith Cake an edible war memorial. The recipe, which developed sometime in the early 1900s somewhere within the New Zealand community (the exact date is still unknown) results in a delightful jam-filled batter cake, with walnuts sprinkled on top. It evolved when the mythos that New Zealand households had access to affordable everyday ingredients – butter, eggs, flour, nuts, raising agents, sugar and spices – combined with the desire to express a national identity. Examination of select New Zealand-published cookbooks held in Canterbury Museum shows that by the 1930s Ladysmith Cake recipes – and a couple of other South African War confections – appeared as often as recipes for the betterknown World War One food memorial, the Anzac Biscuit. When Ladysmith Cake recipe ideas went online, food websites posted images of the cake and commented on the recipe’s connection to the South African War. Who knows why the Ladysmith Cake recipe endured in cultural memory when other South African War confections did not? However, given the Ladysmith Cake recipe’s endurance in cultural memory, food historians, cake bakers and recipe sharers everywhere need to remix in the more difficult or hidden aspects associated with this unique confection’s heritage. Therefore, this article utilises the dark heritage framework, which is often focused on sites where trauma took place at a certain time, to examine the evolution of the recipe and discuss how its transmission, and the social practices wrapped around it, can play a pivotal role in fostering deeper conversations about inclusion. Item Open AccessIndigenous Wāhine Talking Critically in the Museum Space(Berghahn Journals, 2022) Wilson-Hokowhitu N; Mills M; Yates R; Cobley, Joanna; Cobley JAs greater numbers of community groups experience social disconnect, museums need to find better methods of engagement in order to remain relevant. We know that museums are no longer neutral spaces; in fact, they have a role to play in activism, which means they can shift their mission to support local communities celebrate and protect their Indigenous heritage (Drubay and Singhal 2020; Message 2018; Shelton 2013). What follows is a meditation by researchers in Aotearoa New Zealand who engage with Pacific-Indigenous concepts and museum practice in unique ways. Our big idea is to see “Oceania through Indigenous eyes” (Lagi-Maama 2019: 291) and, in particular, the eyes of Nālani Wilson-Hokowhitu with mo‘okū‘auhau to Kalapana, Hawai‘i, and Moloka‘i Nui a Hina; Maree Mills with whakapapa to Tongariro, Taupō, and Ngāti Tūwharetoa; and Rachel Yates, who hails from Vaisala, Sāmoa. As a collective, their curatorial talano kaōrero/mo‘olelo/stories connect to current debates in the museum world where local problems need local solutions. In this instance, Wilson-Hokowhitu and Mills share the ideas that shaped their mahi at Waikato Museum Te Whare Taonga o Waikato in Hamilton, and Yates has just finished a COVID-19 project as Curator of Pacific Cultures at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington. Item Open AccessAn appeal for a creaturely attitude to animals in Vasily Rozanov's writing(Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan, 2022) Mondry, HenriettaThe work of Vasily Rozanov offers a relevant case study of our changing relation to natural-cultural contact zones with animals. Rozanov used a comparative approach to human-animal connections to change the societal attitude to the physical body and erase boundaries between human and animal corporeality. I focus on his narratives that promote a creaturely attitude to animals in the context of societal problems. The issues he addresses have special relevance to the current pandemic realia. I argue that Rozanov used both ethico-religious and secular arguments, as well as logic and emotion as part of his strategy to appeal to wider audiences. The hybrid genre of his narratives was a new form of literature that employed multiple rhetorical devices in creating creaturely poetics. Item Open AccessAI's Promise: Our post-human future(2012) Proudfoot, Diane; Copeland, B. JackIn celebration of the centenary of Alan Turing’s birth, and motivated by the possibility of living forever in a cyborg body, we’ve given this forum over to refl ection on the future of machine intelligence. Turing is rightly called the father of computing, but just what did he accomplish, and what is his legacy? We begin to answer these questions with a rousing bit of speculation (and calls for restraint) by Jack Copeland and Diane Proudfoot, who consider the real promise of artifi cial intelligence. Next, John Preston gives us pause with an argument for the view that, Turing’s enthusiasm notwithstanding, computers will never really be thinking things. The famous Turing Test for machine intelligence gets a lot of attention, but Georges Rey argues that it’s small fry compared to Turing’s lesser known and much more profound ideas. Selmer Bringsjord and Joe Johnson warn of social upheaval ahead, owed to advances in robotics. We conclude with Luciano Floridi’s thoughts not just on Turing, but on the information revolution we fi nd ourselves in. Perhaps Turing’s ideas are transforming our conception of the universe and our place in it, in ways we have yet to understand fully. Floridi argues that Turing is still with us, and his legacy is very much alive.In celebration of the centenary of Alan Turing’s birth, and motivated by the possibility of living forever in a cyborg body, we’ve given this forum over to refl ection on the future of machine intelligence. Turing is rightly called the father of computing, but just what did he accomplish, and what is his legacy? We begin to answer these questions with a rousing bit of speculation (and calls for restraint) by Jack Copeland and Diane Proudfoot, who consider the real promise of artifi cial intelligence. Next, John Preston gives us pause with an argument for the view that, Turing’s enthusiasm notwithstanding, computers will never really be thinking things. The famous Turing Test for machine intelligence gets a lot of attention, but Georges Rey argues that it’s small fry compared to Turing’s lesser known and much more profound ideas. Selmer Bringsjord and Joe Johnson warn of social upheaval ahead, owed to advances in robotics. We conclude with Luciano Floridi’s thoughts not just on Turing, but on the information revolution we fi nd ourselves in. Perhaps Turing’s ideas are transforming our conception of the universe and our place in it, in ways we have yet to understand fully. Floridi argues that Turing is still with us, and his legacy is very much alive. Item Open AccessHeavenly computation: digital metaphysics and the new theology(Wiley, 2016) Proudfoot, Diane Item Open AccessRethinking Turing’s Test and the Philosophical Implications(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020) Proudfoot, Diane© 2020, Springer Nature B.V. In the 70 years since Alan Turing’s ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ appeared in Mind, there have been two widely-accepted interpretations of the Turing test: the canonical behaviourist interpretation and the rival inductive or epistemic interpretation. These readings are based on Turing’s Mind paper; few seem aware that Turing described two other versions of the imitation game. I have argued that both readings are inconsistent with Turing’s 1948 and 1952 statements about intelligence, and fail to explain the design of his game. I argue instead for a response-dependence interpretation (Proudfoot 2013). This interpretation has implications for Turing’s view of free will: I argue that Turing’s writings suggest a new form of free will compatibilism, which I call response-dependence compatibilism (Proudfoot 2017a). The philosophical implications of rethinking Turing’s test go yet further. It is assumed by numerous theorists that Turing anticipated the computational theory of mind. On the contrary, I argue, his remarks on intelligence and free will lead to a new objection to computationalism. Item Open AccessThe Cogito, Dreamt Characters, and Unreal Existence(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023) Turp, Michael-JohnBorges’ The Circular Ruins tells the story of a magician who turns out to be a character in a dream. Leibowitz (2021) argues that this scenario undermines the rational indubitability of Descartes’ Cogito. The magician, he argues, is an unreal appearance and therefore does not exist. I argue that Borges drew a distinction between reality and existence and that he was right to do so. There are various senses of reality and the sense in which a dreamt character is unreal poses no threat to their existence or to the indubitability of the Cogito. The magician is unreal because he is a mind-dependent, illusory and fake. Nonetheless, he can be certain that he thinks, therefore he is. Item Open AccessThe development of a professional capabilities framework for social work in Aotearoa New Zealand(2022) Ballantyne N; Beddoe L; Hay K; Walker S; Merriman C; Maidment, JaneAs in other jurisdictions, social work education in Aotearoa New Zealand operates in a highly political and contested terrain (Beddoe, 2018; Nash & Munford, 2001). In recent years, criticism by public figures, including government ministers and the government-appointed Children’s Commissioner, have stimulated debate within the profession. In the past decade, significant policy developments, including a substantive government review of child protection services (Ministry of Social Development, 2015), have also increased scrutiny of the roles and capabilities of social workers and the quality of their initial education. For example, the Children’s Commissioner (Children’s Commissioner, 2015) commented that: Child Youth and Family reports that many new graduates they employ lack the required level of knowledge of child protection, youth justice, child development, mental health, addictions and family violence. This means new social workers need to learn these skills on the job. (p. 34) However, in the absence of relevant empirical evidence there is a risk that debates about the nature and quality of social work education rely on unsubstantiated, anecdotal comments by policy actors. Consequently, social work education may become directed in ways that are less than optimal for the professional development of new social workers. In 2016, in response to these issues, the Enhance Readiness to Practise (ER2P) research team were funded by Ako Aotearoa, a national tertiary education organisation, to carry out a three-stage project with a focus on the readiness to practice of newly qualified social workers. Item Open Access‘STEALING’ VICTORY AT GAUGAMELA: THE MANIPULATION OF TIME IN ARRIAN'S NARRATIVE(Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022) Morrison, GaryThere are numerous historical reconstructions of the lead-up to the Battle of Gaugamela, albeit often as a short prelude to the battle itself. The focus tends to be historical reality, with the extant sources blended to produce a probable sequence of events. Such narratives have their place, but the process masks the details provided by specific sources. This article analyses Arrian's representation of events to understand his narrative better. Particular attention is paid to his chronological ‘mistake’, specifically the loss of a day which is usually just corrected by commentators. I suggest that this was not an error at all, but a deliberate construct. I show that Arrian manipulates ‘narrative time’ by using the night in order to blur historical time, and how this creates a framework within which Arrian carefully constructs his Alexander–Parmenio exchanges. The construct of the adviser, the use of night imagery, and the select use of terminology (kleptein) are utilized by Arrian in order to maintain his heroic image of Alexander and to conceal any strategies of deception.