Education: Journal Articles

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  • ItemOpen Access
    How Streaming (Tracking) in Eighth Grade Mathematics Reinforces Racialized Social Class Inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Informa UK Limited, online-publication-date) Pomeroy, David; Gibson , Liam; Manning, Richard
    In Aotearoa New Zealand stark social class inequities persist between Māori (Indigenous) and Pacific people and the Pākehā (New Zealand European) majority. These inequities are apparent in domains including education, income, health, and incarceration. The article explores the relationship between streaming (tracking) and historically rooted ethnic inequalities in one diverse urban setting. Drawing survey, assessment, and administrative data from 450 eighth-grade students across three multicultural secondary schools, we ask how school mathematics reinforces or disrupts social-class divisions between majority Pākehā and minoritized Māori and Pacific stu dents. Students entering secondary school imagined their future careers in ways that were already strongly differentiated by race, class, and gender. Tracking students into racially stratified mathematics classes reinforced such inequalities through a self-reinforcing interaction between aspirations and mathematics achievement.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Flipped Classroom: Its Effects on ESL Learners’ Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension Levels
    (Tawasul International Centre for Publishing, Research and Dialogue, online-publication-date) Fulgueras, Michael Jordan Vicencio; Bautista, Judy
    This experimental study investigated the effects of flipped classroom in enhancing critical thinking and reading comprehension levels of 212 senior high school ESL learners in the Philippines; half of which received the conventional lecture-discussion approach to instruction and the other half received flipped learning approach.  Both the control and the experimental groups were subjected to equal number of 15 instructional sessions.  In order to establish the baseline data for each group in the critical thinking variable and the reading comprehension variable, pretests were conducted and were subsequently compared to posttest results.  The t-test of two independent samples assuming equal variances was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the flipped classroom approach and the lecture-discussion approach with regard to enhancing critical thinking and reading comprehension levels.  Results reveal that in both approaches, there were improvements in the critical thinking levels and the reading comprehension levels of the respondents.  However, the results reveal that the respondents who received instruction using the flipped learning approach significantly outperform the respondents who received conventional instruction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    20 Years Teachers’ Work – looking back and looking forward (Part 2)
    (Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Library, online-publication-date) Devine , Nesta; Couch , Daniel; Jones , Kay-Lee; Cook , Helena; Teschers, Christoph
    This editorial celebrates the new, in the form of welcoming two new editors, and reflects on the old, in the form of 20 years of valuing teachers’ work, and resisting encroachments on the mana of teachers and the teaching profession.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Boys on the margins of mathematics in Finland, Australia, and New Zealand: rethinking gendered binaries
    (Elsevier BV, 2024) Jaremus , Felicia; Pomeroy, David; Luoma , Tiina
    Despite decades of attention to gender and school mathematics, gender inequalities in participation persist. This paper uses the lens of gender monoglossia to explore how accounts of gender and mathematics differ in three international contexts: Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. Drawing on data from completed studies, we examine normalised performances of masculinity in relation to location, race, and class, and who these constructions exclude from mathematics. In contrast to previous studies documenting masculine advantages, we note some boys ‘on the margins’ of mathematics in each context. We argue that masculine advantages in mathematics are not universal and that attention to contextual differences in gender monoglossia offers a way to ‘open mathematics up’ by exposing the constructed nature of gender norms.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Buen Vivir and the Art of Living. Comparing Western and Latin American perspectives on living a good life
    (2023) Teschers, Christoph; Nieto , Maria
    While interaction and exchange between cultures is arguably increasing in our globalized world, sentiments reflecting division among cultures and ways of being in the world remain. In particular, the relevance of ideas, theory, and philosophy based on traditional “Western” values and a focus on the individual is often drawn into question for collectivist and community-centred cultures—and vice versa. This has implications for education, given that much of the education discourse and approaches based on Western traditions are affecting education system across the globe and across cultures. It is also of particular significance for the educational approach focusing on developing students’ own “art of living.” While undoubtedly significant fundamental differences exist between most cultures, this article aims to suggest that, nevertheless, synergies and connecting points exist between Schmid’s philosophical concept of the “art of living”—which is based on so-called traditional Western philosophy—and the Latin American notion of “buen vivir” (good living)—which is based on the traditions and cultural worldview of Indigenous peoples of this subcontinent. While we acknowledge the vast differences in culture and the depths of the cultural divide, our comparative review indicates that connections can be drawn on fundamental ethical aspects of human co-existence. We argue that these connecting points suggest that Schmid’s philosophy can be of relevance to non-Western cultural contexts, as much as Indigenous ways of knowing and being can be of relevance to those in the “Western” world pursuing an art of living, which, consequently, indicates that an educational approach to the art of living can be relevant to diverse cultural contexts beyond Western-centric settings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Experiences of Using Wiki as a Participatory Learning Tool in Teacher Education
    (2016) Astall, Chris; Cowan, Jackie
    Wikis have potential for facilitating learning in the online environment but studies have identified varying degrees of success. The implementation of a new learning management system at the university provided a context for course instructors to explore the potential of web2.0 tools to facilitate collaborative learning. This research sought to understand teacher education students’ experiences of working collaboratively using a wiki as the participatory technological web2.0 tool. The research study involved pre-service education teachers enrolled as either on-campus or distance (flexible) students in a compulsory first year curriculum paper. A quantitative and qualitative methodology was used to determine learner perspectives on working within a collaborative learning space. Working collaboratively using a wiki as a participatory technological tool was new to most pre-service teachers. Results from this study indicated that their experiences towards collaborative learning remained positive despite a number of challenges. Whilst each group’s experiences varied, we identified three contributing factors to pre-service teacher’s use of wiki as a collaborative learning tool. The student experiences were discussed in relation to the three factors supporting the development of collaborative learning: positive relationships, the role of the course instructor, and the web2.0 technology.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Identifying the components of foundational Artificial Intelligence (AI) literacy - Early results from a Delphi study
    (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, 2023) MacCallum, Kathryn; Parsons D; Mohaghegh M
    This article provides some initial results from the first phase of a Delphi study to identify the critical components of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) literacy curriculum. This article explores the study results that address a four-level capability model, but only the lowest level of this model. The Delphi panel comprised 17 experts in AI, and the first round of the study used a survey to gather the experts' responses in three areas that were based on previous literature - knowledge (and concepts) of AI, skills related to AI, and understanding AI in context. A structured thematic analysis revealed several themes under these categories. For foundational knowledge and concepts, it was determined that three areas were needed, namely 1) what is AI? 2) applications of AI, and 3) AI technologies. Skills were divided into cognitive and technical skills, with cognitive skills further divided into 21st-century and applied skills. Understandings comprised social issues, risks, and debates. The repeated ideas that formed these themes gave rich insights into how an AI literacy curriculum might be structured and provided a firm foundation for subsequent rounds of the study, which will involve further iteration and consolidation of these ideas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Anti-racism commitment in early childhood education: The limits of cultural competency
    (SAGE Publications, 2023) Azarmandi M, Mahdis; Delaune, Andrea; Surtees, Nicola; Te Rongopatahi, Kari Moana
    Racism is pervasive in education in Aotearoa New Zealand, including in early childhood education. The preparedness of early childhood teachers to respond to the Ministry of Education's current anti-racism policy direction is a pressing concern. This is particularly the case, given the early childhood curriculum Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa offers little guidance to support early childhood teachers to develop anti-racism pedagogies. This primarily theoretical article seeks to contribute to dialogue with early childhood teachers about both racism and anti-racism pedagogies. The theoretical arguments advanced in the article focus on document analysis of Te Whāriki. Analysis includes consideration of the themes of inclusion, equity and social justice. It also includes consideration of what these themes might imply about expectations for early childhood teachers’ uptake of anti-racism approaches in their practice. Document analysis is supplemented by limited preliminary survey data drawn from the initial findings of the Anti-racism Commitment in Early Childhood Education: Pathways to Inclusion, Equity and Social Justice (ARC-ECE) study. Drawing from race-critical scholarship to further advance the theoretical arguments, the article highlights tensions in early childhood teachers’ understandings about racism. The limits of narrow definitions of racism that explain it as the result of ‘cultural difference’ are explored. In making a case for thinking beyond cultural competence and culturally responsive practice, the article calls for an immediate rethinking of racism in (and beyond) the sector.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Currículo da Educação Infantil no Brasil e na Aotearoa Nova Zelândia
    (Universidade Federal de Alogoas) Nogueira, Gabriela; Delaune, Andrea; Maciel Vahl, Mônica
    Este artigo trata sobre o currículo da Educação Infantil no Brasil e na Aotearoa Nova Zelândia. A partir das Diretrizes Curriculares para a Educação Infantil (2009), da Base Nacional Comum Curricular para a Educação Infantil (2017) e das duas versões do documento Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early Childhood Curriculum (1996 e 2017), problematizou-se as proposições para as crianças e as implicações para a infância. A análise demonstra a influência dos organismos internacionais e do mercado financeiro no currículo e a presença de uma racionalidade neoliberal que contribui para a produção da criança como capital humano e do professor como um tecnocrata. Tensões também foram identificadas, revelando objetivos prescritivos que visão a preparação da criança para atender às demandas do mercado. This paper considers Early Childhood Education curricula in Brazil and in Aotearoa New Zealand. Propositions for children and their implications for childhood were problematized in the light of the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education (2009) and the National Curriculum Basis for Early Childhood Education (2017), from Brazil alongside both versions of Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early Childhood Curriculum (1996 and 2017), from Aotearoa New Zealand. The analysis demonstrates the influence of international institutions and the financial market in the curricula and the presence of a neoliberal rationality that has contributed to producing children as human capital and teachers as curricular technicians. Tensions were also identified that reveal prescriptive aims in order to prepare children to meet the demands of the market.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Editorial: 20 years Teachers Work - looking back and looking forward (Part 1)
    (Tuwhera, 2023) Teschers, Christoph; Devine N; Couch D; Teschers C; Devine N; Couch D
  • ItemOpen Access
    Designing for empowering curriculum implementation
    (Victoria University of Wellington Library, 2023) Hipkins, Rosemary; Cowie , Bronwen; Tolbert, Sara; Waiti , Pauline
    International advocacy for future-focused curriculum design often centres on the idea of “competencies” or “capabilities” as potentially transformative constructs for high-level curriculum frameworks. This trend is exemplified by the addition of “key competencies” to the 2007 New Zealand Curriculum. Despite good intentions, this structural change appears to have made minimal difference to the learning that many students experience, or to the assessment practices used to evaluate that learning. With a Curriculum Refresh currently underway, now is an opportune moment to revisit the use of competencies as a lever for curriculum change and ask how the type of transformative change they are intended to stimulate might be conveyed and implemented in more empowering ways. This paper introduces the idea of “enduring competencies” as an umbrella construct for more effective curriculum design conversations. Learning from what has proved problematic in the past, we show how this construct might refocus thinking about purposes for learning, while at the same time being more specific about how and why traditional curriculum “content” might need to change. We illustrate this potential by drawing on our recent collective endeavour to build a small set of enduring competencies for school science education. The paper briefly outlines these four enduring competencies and demonstrates how they build bridges between past (more traditional) and future-focused (more transformative) curriculum and assessment design for the science learning area.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia
    (The Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA), 2013) Major, Jae; Wilkinson , Jane; Langat , Kip; Santoro , Ninetta
    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese students, we discuss the role of social and other capitals in generating conditions that may facilitate educational success for these students. We argue the case for educational research that takes into account the resources and capital upon which Sudanese young people of refugee background and their families draw in order to achieve in education.
  • ItemOpen Access
    What do New Zealand teachers and principals perceive is happening for English as an additional language students with the changing architecture of New Zealand schools?
    (2023) Everatt , John; Fletcher, Jo; Kim , Jean; Subramaniam , Yogeetha Bala
    This paper explores the perceptions of New Zealand teachers and principals about how English as an additional language (EAL) students are faring in the profound changes to the architectural design of school building structures. A national online survey was sent to teachers, middle management and principals in schools and provided qualitative responses to gage the perceptions of participants. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers at four primary schools. The perceptions of these key people provide a range of lenses to better understand the interplay between EAL students’ learning, physical classroom environments and culturally inclusive pedagogical practices. The study found that the innovative architectural design of classrooms may benefit EAL students when the following factors are taken into consideration: (i) peer teaching and student collaboration, (ii) teacher support for EAL students, (iii) classroom noise, and (iv) teacher’s perceptions of EAL students’ personality/cultural traits.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring how Te Whāriki and the New Zealand Curriculum prepare students for an Art of Living
    (2023) Cowper, Alice; Teschers, Christoph
    This qualitative study looked at Wilhelm Schmid’s concept of the Art of Living (AoL) in relation to the current New Zealand Curriculum (NZC) and Te Whāriki. The methodology included a brief content analysis of both Te Whāriki and the NZC in relation to relevant knowledge areas and skills for the development of an AoL, as well as interviews of three participants to provide empirical data. From the participant data, four key themes emerged: support from parents; need for practical aspects within the curriculum(s); post-secondary school guidance; and positive working experiences. The overall findings suggest that Te Whāriki places a large emphasis on the relationships between kaiako, whānau and tamariki, relating to theme one. It was also found that the NZC could provide more opportunities for practical life skills to be included in the curriculum, as well as providing clearer instruction on how to implement effective careers education and other knowledge areas and thinking skills relevant for students to develop their own art of living.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Turou hawaiki: Morning karakia and waiata as culturally responsive pedagogy
    (The University of Queensland, 2023) Karaka-Clarke, T H; Ratima, Matiu Tai; Stevens, Susannah; Motu, E; Watson, M
    This article presents the findings of a qualitative case study on voluntary participation in morning karakia (incantation, prayer) and waiata (song) sessions, led by a group of teacher educators. This study is informed by a selective review of literature from three relevant sources: the impact of music therapy practices, culturally responsive pedagogy, and the normalisation of te reo Māori (Māori language) and tikanga Māori (Māori protocols and customs). This approach to the literature review was necessary given the paucity of research on the impact of indigenous cultural practices such as karakia and waiata in mainstream cultural contexts. Through thematic analysis of a survey questionnaire (N = 65) and semi-structured interviews (n = 9), findings showed that participants experienced an improved sense of wellbeing, an increased feeling of whanaungatanga (relationships and belonging) and greater confidence in engaging with Māori culture. This study could be considered a catalyst for additional research into the practice of daily karakia and waiata in educational or professional contexts to better understand the long-term effects on wellbeing and on cultural competence and confidence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Refugee young people (re)forming identities: The role of social networks
    (2019) Langat , Kiprono; Major , Jae; Wilkinson , Jane
    Educational contexts around the world are increasingly characterized by diversity, including a rise in students from refugee backgrounds. Much research has focused on the educational needs of these students and the particular struggles they experience in educational contexts. The increasing number of refugee and asylum seeking children in Australia calls for rethinking approaches to enhance the acculturation process in ways that build on individuals’ prior knowledge and understanding of self. This paper draws on data from a larger case study that focused on Sudanese young people in regional Australia and investigated their out-of-school activities, networks, and practices and how these contributed to their success across a range of contexts. Drawing on perspectives of identity and theories of social capital, we discuss the role of social networks in generating social capital and what this means in terms of the (re)formation of students’ identities in regional locations, and we consider how this can contribute to educational success. We suggest that the resources in regional areas present both a challenge and an opportunity for young former-refugee people in terms of repositioning themselves in new social, cultural, and educational contexts. The paper examines how the young people developed their own momentum, rationality, and legitimacy in their identity (re)formation, and suggests that educational settings need to connect with and understand young people’s out-of-school resources to avoid deficit narratives that lead to poor educational outcomes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Pedagogical Innovation in Higher Education
    (IGI Global, 2020) Major, Jae; Tait-McCutcheon , Sandi Lynne; Averill, Robin; Wood, Amanda; Knewstubb , Bernadette; Mortlock, Anita; Jones , Liz
    Quality teaching in higher education (HE) is gaining increasing international attention and pedagogical innovation is seen as an important construct of quality teaching. The drivers for pedagogical innovation include the need for 21st century skills and understandings, student demographics and empowerment, technological advances, and a turn to teaching in HE. Defining innovative pedagogies is a recurring challenge in the literature and a key focus of this article. Using an investigation into innovative approaches to teaching and learning at one New Zealand university, prevailing themes of newness, benefit, and student outcomes are discussed to develop a working definition. What is missing from the discourses and definitions is specific consideration of the influence of context on what counts as pedagogical innovation. In light of this, the authors offer an emergent definition of pedagogical innovation in higher education.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Divorce discourse as a kinship resource in lesbian known donor reproduction: “The dad has bubba on the weekend”
    (Informa UK Limited, 2023) Surtees, Nicola
    Assisted conception practices contribute to an increasingly complex relational landscape. This article draws from a qualitative study that investigated narratives about the negotiation of relatedness in lesbian known donor reproduction in Aotearoa New Zealand. Twenty-six interviews, with 60 adults, across 21 lesbian known donor familial configurations at different stages of forming family through known donor insemination were conducted. The article demonstrates how parties using this form of insemination – lesbian couples, known donors and known donor partners – invoke divorce discourse as a kinship resource. The families these women and men were creating or had already established were the product of deliberate pre-conception planning rather than the result of separation or divorce following the breakdown of an intimate relationship. Nevertheless, divorce discourse supported them to make sense of possibilities for the kin status and place of known donors and their partners within the kinship structures put around children given they have no obvious place within these structures. The article argues the use of divorce conventions serves to both disrupt and uphold traditional parenting discourses and practices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Working with complexity: Leading school networks in Aotearoa New Zealand and England
    (SAGE Publications, 2022) Greany T; Kamp, Annelies
    Inter-school networks have been promoted in many school systems globally to facilitate: knowledge generation and dissemination; responsiveness to increasingly diverse student and societal needs; and emotional and practical peer support for educational professionals. In understanding contemporary education as a ‘wicked’ problem, this paper explores case studies of inter-school networks in Aotearoa New Zealand (New Zealand) and England through the lens of complexity theory. We focus on how the conditions necessary for complex emergence identified by Davis and Sumara operate and how these conditions, along with their ‘enabling constraints’, facilitate the emergence of new perspectives and practices that enable the achievement of network objectives. This analysis indicates that where particular forms of leadership are in place, challenges – such as fragmentation, competition and the absence of social capital – can be overcome. We argue that network leaders need to balance and bridge three overlapping leadership approaches: operational leadership, entrepreneurial leadership and enabling leadership. We conclude by exploring the implications and insights for school, network and system leaders.