Science: Conference Contributions

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 398
  • ItemOpen Access
    Can transport enhance community wellbeing and reduce social inequity in two contrasting communities in Christchurch
    (2022) Kingham, Simon; Fitt , Helen; Curl , Angela; Dares , Cushla; Russell , Els; McKerchar , Christina; Conrow , Lindsey; Banwell , Karen; Berghan , James; Williman , Jonathan
    Activating Change Through InterVentions for Active Travel In Our Neighbourhoods • to investigate ways of “retro-fitting” the design of our cities that will encourage more active modes of travel and reduce car dependence. Two study areas: 1. Safe and Healthy Streets South Auckland (SAHSSA) - Mangere • the impact of locally co-designed activities aimed at increasing the connectivity of walking and biking infrastructure on residents’ physical activity, social connection and safety 2. Christchurch • focussed on new higher density city building developments to investigate changes in travel practices associated with moving house to higher density central city living
  • ItemOpen Access
    When is artificially opening Intermittently Closed Estuaries most effective?
    (River Basin Management Society, 2016) McSweeney, Sarah; Kennedy, D M; Rutherfurd, I D; Veitz G; Flatley A; Rutherfurd I
  • ItemOpen Access
    Classification of intermittently closed and open coastal lakes and lagoons in Victoria, Australia
    (The University of Melbourne, 2014) McSweeney S; Veitz G; Rutherfurd I; Hughes R
  • ItemOpen Access
    P4.25: Gating Mechanism in Tinnitus: Explored in Surgery-Induced Unilateral Deafness in Adult Humans through Resting-State Electroencephalography
    (University of Canterbury, 2023) Park, MinChul; O'Beirne, Greg; Bird, Philip; Maslin, Michael
  • ItemOpen Access
    Detection of concealed knowledge via the ERP-based technique Brain Fingerprinting: Real-crime scenarios
    (Wiley, 2021) Afzali, Usman; Palmer R; Neumann, Ewald; Seren-Grace, A; Makarios, S; Wilson, Debra; Jones, Richard
    Brain Fingerprinting (BFP) is an electroencephalogram-based system used to detect knowledge, or absence of knowledge of a real-life incident (e.g., a crime) in a person's memory. With the help of BFP, a potential crime suspect can be classified as possessing crime-related information (Information-Present), not possessing crime-related information (Information-Absent), or Indeterminate (BFP unable to classify a subject). In the lab setting, we compare the ground-truth of a subject (i.e., real-life involvement in an incident) against their classification based on BFP testing. We report two studies: replication of BFP with university students (Study 1) and replication of BFP with parolees (Study 2). In Study 1, we tested 31 subjects (24 females, seven males, mean age = 21.3) on either their own or another subject's real-life incident. BFP correctly classified nine Information-Present and 18 Information-Absent subjects, but with one false positive and three exclusions. In Study 2, we tested 17 male parolees (mean age = 47.5) on their own or another parolee's crime incident. BFP correctly classified two Information-Present and six Information-Absent subjects. However, there was also one false positive classification and three Indeterminates. Additionally, we identified three subjects who could not complete the BFP testing and two exclusions. We posit that BFP is not yet at a stage to be considered a robust and accurate crime-detection tool as claimed in former articles. Nevertheless, after addressing the limitations, BFP has considerable potential as an information detection tool in forensic investigations, especially for detecting idiosyncratic crime-relevant knowledge in a perpetrator, in addition to helping to confirm the accuracy of a suspect's claim of innocence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Submission on information and supporting documentation relevant to the trends in new technological developments in synthetic biology and any additional trend that should be considered.
    (2023) Heinemann, Jack
    This submission will emphasise items (b) Increased development of technologies that genetically modify organisms directly in the field, (c) A shift to the development of synthetic biology for environmental, conservation, agricultural and health uses, (d) Increasing sophistication of methods, including, for example, new genome editing techniques, more complex metabolic engineering, the recoding of genomes, and the use of artificial intelligence/machine learning for the redesign of biological systems, (e) The use of transient modification of organisms, including, for example, through the use of synthetic double stranded RNA molecules, nano-particles and genetically modified viruses, and (f) Ability to produce new synthetic biomolecules using non-canonical nucleotides and amino acids referred to in paragraph 6 of decision 15/31, which correspond to the trends identified in the report of the 2019 Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology at paragraph 5. In the first two sections of our submission the items are not individualised because the various techniques of synthetic biology can be used in combination or may involve risk issues that transcend the individual items. We contend that an important additional trend is where these techniques combine leading to heretofore unprecedented scales at which possible benefit but also potential harm can be created. Our submission is guided by Article 1 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In this Article, three objectives are articulated. They are “the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding.” In the final section of this submission a proposed alignment between the objectives is provided to suggest and prioritise the emerging issues that require specific further development and better knowledge sharing.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Spatial working memory and the brainstem cholinergic innervation to the anterior thalamus
    (SOC NEUROSCIENCE, 2001) Mitchell, Anna S; Dalrymple-Alford, John
    The anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV) has a role in spatial memory, but the influence of the prominent brainstem cholinergic projection to this region is unknown. Here, spatial memory in a 12-arm radial maze was examined after 0.15 l bilateral AV infusions of scopolamine. In part one, rats visited six arms singly (the phase 1 arms) and, after a 10 min delay, were allowed free choice to both phase 1 arms and the remaining six baited arms (phase 2 arms). Scopolamine (10 g) administered during the delay increased errors to both phase 1 and phase 2 arms, whereas PBS infusions increased phase 1 arm errors only. The PBS effect was the result of inserting the internal cannulas alone and not the infusion. The same dose of scopolamine (10 g) infused before maze testing (part two: no phase 1 arms, no delay) also impaired spatial memory over and above the effects of both PBS and no-infusion, which did not differ markedly. Part two also showed that choice latency and choice strategies were unaffected by PBS and scopolamine. Cannulation and infusion procedures in both parts one and two did not produce any negative carryover effects across multiple control (no internal cannula) sessions, and a trypan blue manipulation indicated that infusions were restricted to the AV region. This study provides the first direct evidence that the brainstem cholinergic innervation to the limbic thalamus influences learning and memory, which may have important implications for human neurological conditions such as alcohol-related disorders and schizophrenia.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Shallow U-Net Deep Learning Approach for Phase Retrieval in Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging
    (SPIE, 2022) Li SZ; French MG; Li HT; Pavlov, Konstantin; Müller B; Wang G
    X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) has revolutionised modern medical imaging. However, X-Ray CT imaging requires patients to be exposed to radiation, which can increase the risk of cancer. Therefore there exists an aim to reduce radiation doses for CT imaging without sacrificing image accuracy. This research combines phase retrieval with the ShallowU-Net CNN method to achieve the aim. This paper shows that a significant change in existing machine learning neural network algorithms could improve the X-ray phase retrieval in propagationbased phase-contrast imaging. This paper applies deep learning methods, through a variant of the existing U-Net architecture, named ShallowU-Net, to show that it is possible to perform two distance X-ray phase retrieval on composite materials by predicting a portion of the required data. ShallowU-Net is faster in training and in deployment. This method also performs data stretching and pre-processing, to reduce the numerical instability of the U-Net algorithm thereby improving the phase retrieval images.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Accelerating the Evolution of Nonhuman Primate Neuroimaging
    (Elsevier BV, 2020) Milham M; Petkov CI; Margulies DS; Schroeder CE; Basso MA; Belin P; Fair DA; Fox A; Kastner S; Mars RB; Messinger A; Poirier C; Vanduffel W; Van Essen DC; Alvand A; Becker Y; Ben Hamed S; Benn A; Bodin C; Boretius S; Cagna B; Coulon O; El-Gohary SH; Evrard H; Forkel SJ; Friedrich P; Froudist-Walsh S; Garza-Villarreal EA; Gao Y; Gozzi A; Grigis A; Hartig R; Hayashi T; Heuer K; Howells H; Ardesch DJ; Jarraya B; Jarrett W; Jedema HP; Kagan I; Kelly C; Kennedy H; Klink PC; Kwok SC; Leech R; Liu X; Madan C; Madushanka W; Majka P; Mallon AM; Marche K; Meguerditchian A; Menon RS; Merchant H; Nenning KH; Nikolaidis A; Ortiz-Rios M; Pagani M; Pareek V; Prescott M; Procyk E; Rajimehr R; Rautu IS; Raz A; Roe AW; Rossi-Pool R; Roumazeilles L; Sakai T; Sallet J; García-Saldivar P; Sato C; Sawiak S; Schiffer M; Schwiedrzik CM; Seidlitz J; Sein J; Shen ZM; Shmuel A; Silva AC; Simone L; Sirmpilatze N; Sliwa J; Smallwood J; Tasserie J; Thiebaut de Schotten M; Toro R; Trapeau R; Uhrig L; Vezoli J; Wang Z; Wells S; Williams B; Xu T; Xu AG; Yacoub E; Zhan M; Ai L; Amiez C; Balezeau F; Mitchell, Anna S
    Nonhuman primate neuroimaging is on the cusp of a transformation, much in the same way its human counterpart was in 2010, when the Human Connectome Project was launched to accelerate progress. Inspired by an open data-sharing initiative, the global community recently met and, in this article, breaks through obstacles to define its ambitions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Speckle-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Tomography of an Attenuating Object
    (SPIE, 2021) Alloo SJ; Paganin DM; Morgan KS; Kitchen MJ; Stevenson AW; Mayo SC; Maksimenko A; Bowden J; Li, Heyang; Kennedy, Ben; Pavlov, Konstantin
    Spatial resolution in standard phase-contrast X-ray imaging is limited by the finite number and size of detector pixels. This limits the size of features that can be seen directly in projection images or tomographic reconstructions. Dark-field imaging allows information regarding such features to be obtained, as the reconstructed image is a measure of the position-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering of incident rays from the unresolved microstructure. In this paper we utilize an intrinsic speckle-tracking-based X-ray imaging technique to obtain the effective dark-field signal from a wood sample. This effective dark-field signal is extracted using a Fokker-Planck type formalism, which models the deformations of illuminating reference-beam speckles due to both coherent and diffusive scatter from the sample. We here assume that (a) small-angle scattering fans at the exit surface of the sample are rotationally symmetric, and (b) the object has both attenuating and refractive properties. The associated inverse problem, of extracting the effective dark-field signal, is numerically stabilised using a "weighted determinants"approach. Effective dark-field projection images are presented, as well as the dark-field tomographic reconstructions obtained using Fokker-Planck implicit speckle-tracking.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An informal community of practice: The case of the DEHub Virtual Worlds Working Group
    (2012) Gregory S; Grant S; Butler D; Jacka L; Orwin L; Jones JK; Farley, Helen
    The DEHub Virtual Worlds Working Group has an informal membership of nearly 200 members with an interest in education and virtual worlds within the Australian and New Zealand context. Members come from a variety of academic disciplines and may be teaching or research academics, Research Higher Degree candidates, project managers, virtual world builders and developers. The group acts as an informal Community of Practice, facilitating learning and the transfer of skills through social contact, opportunities to collaborate on projects and publications, and through the sharing of knowledge and experience. This poster provides a snapshot of the activity of this highly active group.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Comparison of Different Approaches to Image Quality Assessment in Phase-Contrast Mammography
    (2021) Reynolds JM; Brennan PC; Gureyev TE; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Quantitative Reconstruction of an Arbitrary Sample using Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging
    (2022) Alloo SJ; Paganin DM; Morgan KS; Kitchen MJ; Croton LCP; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Recovering refraction and attenuation information in an unknown sample using X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography
    (2022) Alloo SJ; Paganin DM; Morgan KS; Gureyev TE; Mayo SC; Nesterets YI; Mohammadi S; Lockie D; Menk RH; Arfelli F; Kitchen MJ; Zanconati F; Dullin C; Tromba G; Croton LCP; Pavlov K; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Imaging Breast Microcalcifications Using Dark-Field Signal in Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast Tomography
    (2021) Aminzadeh A; Arhatari B; Maksimenko A; Hall C; Hausermann D; Peele A; Fox J; Kumar B; Prodanovic Z; Dimmock V; Lockie D; Thompson D; Mayo SC; Paganin DM; Taba ST; Lewis S; Brennan PC; Quiney HM; Gureyev TE; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Tomographic X-ray phase and attenuation extraction for a sample composed of unknown materials
    (2021) Alloo SJ; Paganin DM; Morgan KS; Gureyev TE; Mayo SC; Mohammadi S; Lockie D; Menk RH; Arfelli F; Zanconati F; Tromba G; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Speckle-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Tomography of an Attenuating Object
    (2021) Alloo SJ; Morgan KS; Paganin DM; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Speckle-Based X-ray Imaging: Dark-Field Tomography of a Phase Object
    (2021) Alloo S; Paganin D; Kitchen M; Stevenson AW; Mayo SC; Li H; Maksimenko A; Bowden J; Kennedy B; Pavlov, Konstantin
  • ItemOpen Access
    Turning Active Transport Research into Policy: A View from the Chief Science Advisor
    (2019) Kingham, Simon
    There is an increasing body of quality research being done in New Zealand and internationally on the role of transport in active living. In New Zealand, the transport sector is seeking to align policy with evidence. So how can research best inform policy? How can the ivory tower best talk to Wellington? This research will seek to identify how research can best inform policy. In addition to drawing on experience within the Ministry of Transport it will also reflect on two ongoing examples of research in Christchurch to examine how this can/cannot work. One is working with the local council to assess the impact of one of Christchurch’s new cycleways on cycle use. The second is assessing how the transport environment around a school is impacting travel to school, working with a range of local parties including the council, school and New Zealand Transport Agency.