Science: Chapters and Books

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  • ItemOpen Access
    The psychology of Avicenna : an English version of the Liber de Anima.
    (Simon Kemp, 2023) Kemp, Simon
    A thousand years ago, Ibn Sina, or Avicenna as he was later known in Europe, wrote one of the all-time most important and influential books on psychology. He wrote it in Arabic. It was translated into Latin a hundred and fifty years later, but until now there has been no English version, and so it has been unavailable to many people interested in psychology. The book covers a wide range of topics, from mathematics to mysticism, from biology to moral philosophy, but the major focus is on how we perceive and think about the world. Some of his theories foreshadow recent psychology. For example, his account of perception and memory follows an information-processing model. He uses this model to explain hallucinations, and how we often reconstruct rather than remember past events. On the other hand, some theories are very different. His account of vision, although explaining many everyday phenomena, is quite unlike the present-day one. The book is historically important because of its great influence on medieval and early modern thinking about psychology. But many of the ideas are still relevant and thought-provoking today.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Value of a Policy-Responsive Research Funding Model: The Geohealth Laboratory Collaboration in New Zealand
    (2021) Marek L; Hobbs M; Wilson M; Campbell, Malcolm; Kingham, Simon; Rajabifard A; Foliente G; Paez D
    This book chapter discusses the GeoHealth Laboratory (GHL) research model that is based on a relationship contract funding model. The GHL aims to be a collaboration that builds a strategic partnership between two parties, the University of Canterbury (UC) and the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) around health geography, spatial epidemiology, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Further, the GHL seeks to produce high-quality research (i.e. journal articles) and policy-relevant outputs (e.g. in the form of plain English reports) in the fields of health and GIS. The chapter discusses the nature of the relationship and funding model, with examples of research from the annual research programme. We conclude by showing the importance of flexibility in research funding models, using emerging exemplars of research related to the COVID-19 response in New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Tolerance and being tolerated: State of the field, challenges, and future directions
    (2022) Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Adelman, Levi; Smeekes A; Thijs J
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cass : history and science in the Cass district, Canterbury, New Zealand
    (Department of Botany, University of Canterbury, 1977) Burrows, C. J. (Colin James)
    The Cass Field Station of the University of Canterbury was first built in 1914 among the mountains of the upper Waimakariri River Basin and this volume covers the history of the Station and the Cass district, including the farming endeavour there. Other articles, written by authors eminent in their fields, describe the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, and the biology and ecology of the various vegetation types and animal habitat types. Although the data summarizes sixty years of natural science in the area, much new information is included in each article. Seldom has any locality of comparable size in New Zealand been as well studied as the area around Cass but most of the articles ·give prominence to the need for further study. Extensive annotated check lists of the flora and fauna are given and there is a list of all theses and publications which have been based on work in the vicinity of the Station. This volume is an important contribution to natural science in the South Island mountains and is recommended to interested laymen, students and research scientists.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Caring labour: Redistributing care-work
    (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020) Dombroski K; Gibson-Graham JK; Dombroski K
    Theorizing and illustrating diverse, more-than-capitalist economies, this broad-ranging Handbook presents ways in which it is possible to imagine and enact other ways of being.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Working with Indigenous methodologies: Kaupapa Māori meets diverse economies
    (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020) Waitoa J; Dombroski K; Gibson-Graham JK; Dombroski K
    Theorizing and illustrating diverse, more-than-capitalist economies, this broad-ranging Handbook presents ways in which it is possible to imagine and enact other ways of being.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Diverse Economy: Feminism, Capitalocentrism, and Postcapitalist Futures
    (Edward Elgar, 2018) McKinnon, Katharine; Dombroski, Kelly; Morrow, Oona; Elias J; Roberts A
  • ItemOpen Access
    Introduction to diverse economies: Inventory as ethical intervention
    (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020) Gibson-Graham, J.K.; Dombroski, Kelly; Gibson-Graham, J.K.; Dombroski, Kelly
    Theorizing and illustrating diverse, more-than-capitalist economies, this broad-ranging Handbook presents ways in which it is possible to imagine and enact other ways of being.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Mātauranga as knowledge, process and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Center for Open Science, 2020) Wehi, Priscilla M.; Whaanga, Hēmi; Watene, Krushil; Steeves, Tammy E.; Thornton, T.; Bhagwat, S.
    The future of Aotearoa New Zealand’s biodiversity is intimately linked to the health of Māori environmental knowledge, the ability to work within different philosophical traditions, and a willingness to work at the intersections of philosophy, cultural practice and science. Māori environmental philosophies and knowledge systems (mātauranga) are intricately rooted in and shaped by Pacific pathways, and shaped by the oral traditions that connect Pacific journeys, encounters with new landscapes, and the ongoing socio-environmental and political experiences of today. Ecological knowledge has a particularly important role within this mātauranga knowledge system, and as such is deeply embedded in tribal histories. The pairing of Māori environmental knowledge with a range of other scientific tools, models and analyses is a trend that will help provide beneficial indicators of population and ecosystem health, that will in turn feed the growth and continuance of mātauranga. Recent laws have pioneered co-management solutions that embody partnership with Māori tribal groups, and enable customary responsibilities. Ethical data management guidelines, that draw on a foundation of Māori philosophies, ethics and practices, are in development for biobanking and genetic or genomic research. Museum and herbarium data are also increasingly being linked to cultural knowledge and relationships. For practitioners, access is a prerequisite to practice; locking up the environment, and locking up collections in museums, acts to alienate Māori and reduces capacity to respond to both cultural prerogatives and national challenges. Scientists who work with Māori environmental knowledge or mātauranga more broadly are part of a shifting inter-disciplinary landscape of solution building at national and international scales, where considerations of intellectual property rights, ethical research partnerships, data sovereignty and community empowerment all contribute to best outcomes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Surviving well together: post development, maternity care and the politics of ontological pluralism
    (Routledge, 2019) McKinnon, Katharine; Healy, Stephen; Dombroski, Kelly; Klein E; Morreo CE
  • ItemOpen Access
    Care-full Community Economies
    (Routledge, 2018) Dombroski KF; Healy S; McKinnon KI; Harcourt W; Bauhardt C
    In this era of human-induced environmental crisis, it is widely recognized that we need to foster better ways to sustain life for people and planet. For us – and other scholars drawing on the Community Economies tradition – better worlds begin in recognising the diverse and interconnected ways human communities secure our livelihoods. Community Economies scholarship is a body of theory that evolved from the writings of geographers J.K. Gibson Graham, which, for more than thirty years, has inspired others (including the three of us) to rethink economy as a space of political possibility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Managing peri-urban floodplains and urban-rural connectivity: A case study in ecosystems governance following a disaster event
    (2019) Orchard, Shane; Challies, E
    Peri-urban environments are critical to the connections between urban and rural ecosystems and their respective communities. Lowland floodplains are important examples that are attractive for urbanisation and often associated with the loss of rural lands and resources. In Christchurch, New Zealand, damage from major earthquakes led to the large-scale abandonment of urban residential properties in former floodplain areas creating a rare opportunity to re-imagine the future of these lands. This has posed a unique governance challenge involving the reassessment of land-use options and a renewed focus on disaster risk and climate change adaptation. Urban-rural tensions have emerged through decisions on relocating residential development, alternative proposals for land uses, and an unprecedented opportunity for redress of degraded traditional values for indigenous (Māori) people. Immediately following the earthquakes, existing statutory arrangements applied to many recovery needs and identified institutional responsibilities. Bespoke legislation was also created to address the scale of impacts. Characteristics of the approach have included attention to information acquisition, iterative assessment of land - use options, and a wide variety of opportunities for community participation. Challenges have included a protracted decision-making process with accompanying transaction costs, and a high requirement for coordination. The case typifies the challenges of achieving ecosystem governance where both urban and rural stakeholders have strong desires and an opportunity to exert influence. It presents a unique context for applying the latest thinking on ecosystem management, adaptation, and resilience, and offers transferable learning for the governance of peri-urban floodplains worldwide.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cultivating Community Economies: Tools for building a liveable world
    (2017) Gibson-Graham JK; Cameron J; Dombroski K; Healy S; Miller E
  • ItemOpen Access
    Update on global ozone: past, present, and future
    (World Meteorological Organization, 2014) Pawson S; Steinbrecht W; Charlton-Perez AJ; Fujiwara M; Karpechko AY; Petropavlovskikh I; Urban J; Weber M; Aquila V; Chehade W; Cionni I; Coldewey-Egbers M; Delcloo A; Dhomse SS; Eyring V; Fleming E; Frith SM; Froidevaux L; Gillett NP; Hassler B; Hegglin MI; Kinnison DE; Loyola D; McLinden CA; Oman LD; Plummer DA; Revell LE; Sakazaki T; Seviour W; Tegtmeier S; van der A RJ; Wild J; Fioletov VE; Langematz U
    This chapter deals with the evolution of global ozone outside of the polar regions. The increase of ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations caused the large ozone decline observed from 1980 to the mid- 1990s. Since the late 1990s, concentrations of ODSs have been declining due to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol. As reported in the last Assessment, global ozone levels have remained stable since 2000. Ozone columns observed in the last four years have largely remained in the range observed since 2000. Over the next decades we expect increasing global-mean stratospheric ozone columns, as ODSs decline further. Climate change and emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), also affect the evolution of global stratospheric ozone, particularly in the second half of the 21st century, when ODS concentrations are expected to be low.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Approaches to implementing a strengthened global response to the threat of climate change
    (IPCC, 2018) Hayward BM; Roy J
    The principal rationale for this chapter is to gather and assess the best available policy relevant knowledge from the available literature, including existing options and case studies, on what is known about the methods and approaches to implementation of possible mitigation and adaptation options, consistent with a strengthened global response to limit warming to 1.5oC above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. The chapter thus follows logically on an assessment of possible emissions pathways (Chapter 2), potential impacts of 1.5oC warming (Chapter 3), and the identification of priority mitigation and adaptation opportunities (Chapter 4) that could limit warming to 1.5oC. This chapter then would focus on existing mechanisms and on what is known about potential alternative implementation options and approaches through which the strengthened global response could be realized. To the extent the available literature allows, the chapter should assess how possible implementation approaches would impact the achievement of near-term (through 2030) sustainable development targets, and affect sustainable development pathways beyond 2030
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using Role-Play to Improve Students’ Confidence and Perceptions of Communication in a Simulated Volcanic Crisis
    (2017) Brogt, E; Wilson, T; Kennedy, B; Dohaney, Jacqueline
    Traditional teaching of volcanic science typically emphasises scientific principles and tends to omit the key roles, responsibilities, protocols, and communication needs that accompany volcanic crises. This chapter provides a foundation in instructional communication, education, and risk and crisis communication research that identifies the need for authentic challenges in higher education to challenge learners and provide opportunities to practice crisis communication in real-time. We present an authentic, immersive role-play called the Volcanic Hazards Simulation that is an example of a teaching resource designed to match professional competencies. The role-play engages students in volcanic crisis concepts while simultaneously improving their confidence and perceptions of communicating science. During the role-play, students assume authentic roles and responsibilities of professionals and communicate through interdisciplinary team discussions, media releases, and press conferences. We characterised and measured the students’ confidence and perceptions of volcanic crisis communication using a mixed methods research design to determine if the role-play was effective at improving these qualities. Results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in both communication confidence and perceptions of science communication. The exercise was most effective in transforming low-confidence and low-perception students, with some negative changes measured for our higher-learners. Additionally, students reported a comprehensive and diverse set of best practices but focussed primarily on the mechanics of science communication delivery. This curriculum is a successful example of how to improve students’ communication confidence and perceptions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    What the applicability of mathematics says about its philosophy
    (Springer, 2018) Wilson PL; Hansson SO
    We use mathematics to understand the world. This fact lies behind all of modern science and technology. Mathematics is the tool used by physicists, engineers, biologists, neuroscientists, chemists, astrophysicists and applied mathematicians to investigate, explain, and manipulate the world around us. The importance of mathematics to science cannot be overstated. It is the daily and ubiquitous tool of millions of scientists and engineers throughout the world and in all areas of science. The undeniable power of mathematics not only to predict but also to explain phenomena is what physics Nobel laureate Eugene Wigner dubbed the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences” (Wigner, 1960). Yet the success of mathematics in explaining the world belies a great mystery: why is that possible? Why are our abstract thought and our manipulation of symbols able to successfully explain the workings of distant stars, the patterns of stripes on a tiger, and the weirdest behaviour of the smallest units of matter? Why is applying mathematics to the real world even possible? This is a question in the philosophy of mathematics. The traditional approach to answering it is to first decide (hopefully on rational grounds) what to believe about the nature of mathematics and its objects of study, and then to explore what this philosophical standpoint says about the applicability of mathematics to the world. In this chapter, I take a different approach. I take as given the existence of applied mathematics. On this foundational axiom, I ask the question “what does the existence of applied mathematics say about the philosophy of mathematics?” In this way, we treat the existence of applied mathematics as a lens through which to examine competing claims about the nature of mathematics. What then do we mean by the existence of applied mathematics, by the philosophy of mathematics, and what are the claims on the nature of mathematics?
  • ItemOpen Access
    The philosophy of applied mathematics
    (Oxford University Press, 2014) Wilson P; Parc S
  • ItemOpen Access
    Takitaki mai : a guide to motivational interviewing for Māori.
    (Matua Rak̲i, The National Addiction Workforce Programme, 2014) Britt, Eileen F.; Gregory, Daryl; Tohiariki, Tohi; Huriwai, Terry