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  • ItemOpen Access
    Physical, Chemical and Compaction Characteristics of Slightly Weathered Tephras of New Zealand
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, online-publication-date) Sood S; Chiaro G; Wilson, Thomas; Stringer M
    The North Island of New Zealand is a region of high volcanic activity, with significant eruptions over the past. Analogous to past events, future volcanic eruptions would produce a considerable volume of ash and granular soils, covering widespread areas and raising concerns for their disposal and storage. Such deposits, primarily airfall tephra, could be potentially used in geotechnical engineering applications such as foundations, roadway embankments and land reclamations. However, before their use as structural fills can be recommended, detailed laboratory investigations of their physical, chemical, compaction, and geotechnical engineering properties (strength, compressibility, collapsibility, liquefaction potential, etc.) must be conducted. Different tephra deposits can be products of different eruptions, so chemical composition analyses can be combined with the physical, compaction, and engineering properties to characterize such deposits. Accordingly, this paper provides useful insights from physical (grain size, specific gravity, and morphology), chemical (elemental and mineralogy using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction), and compaction tests (maximum dry density, optimum water content, and particle breakage) for eleven selected volcanic tephra samples sourced from the North Island of New Zealand in the Rotorua, Taupo, and Auckland regions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Extended ozone depletion and reduced snow and ice cover—Consequences for Antarctic biota
    (Wiley, 2024) Robinson , Sharon A.; Revell, Laura; Mackenzie , Roy; Ossola , Rachele
    AbstractStratospheric ozone, which has been depleted in recent decades by the release of anthropogenic gases, is critical for shielding the biosphere against ultraviolet‐B (UV‐B) radiation. Although the ozone layer is expected to recover before the end of the 21st century, a hole over Antarctica continues to appear each year. Ozone depletion usually peaks between September and October, when fortunately, most Antarctic terrestrial vegetation and soil biota is frozen, dormant and protected under snow cover. Similarly, much marine life is protected by sea ice cover. The ozone hole used to close before the onset of Antarctic summer, meaning that most biota were not exposed to severe springtime UV‐B fluxes. However, in recent years, ozone depletion has persisted into December, which marks the beginning of austral summer. Early summertime ozone depletion is concerning: high incident UV‐B radiation coincident with snowmelt and emergence of vegetation will mean biota is more exposed. The start of summer is also peak breeding season for many animals, thus extreme UV‐B exposure (UV index up to 14) may come at a vulnerable time in their life cycle. Climate change, including changing wind patterns and strength, and particularly declining sea ice, are likely to compound UV‐B exposure of Antarctic organisms, through earlier ice and snowmelt, heatwaves and droughts. Antarctic field research conducted decades ago tended to study UV impacts in isolation and more research that considers multiple climate impacts, and the true magnitude and timing of current UV increases is needed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The future of sustainable polar ship-based tourism
    (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2023) Liggett, Daniela; Cajiao , Daniela; Lamers, Machiel; Leung, Yu-Fai; Stewart, Emma J.
    Abstract Over the last couple of decades, polar tourism has significantly grown in the number of visitors and diversified in terms of the tourism activities offered. The COVID-19 pandemic brought polar tourism to a halt and has prompted researchers, operators and policy-makers alike to reflect on how Arctic and Antarctic tourism have developed, how they are being managed and governed and, importantly, how tourism operators influence polar socio-ecological systems. Given the dominance of ship-based tourism over other types of tourism in the Polar Regions, we discuss the cornerstones of how polar ship-based tourism has developed over the last 50 years and explore the relevant international and regional governance regimes in this article. We identify which positive and negative biophysical, socio-cultural and economic impacts arising from polar tourism have been identified by researchers. It is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle impacts caused by tourism alone from those that result from the interactions of multiple pressures at all levels (local, regional and global), and more research is needed to develop reliable and effective indicators to monitor tourism impacts. In addition, a better understanding is needed about the role tourist experiences might play in potentially encouraging long-term positive behavioural changes among visitors to the Polar Regions. The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an important opportunity to review polar tourism development and management, and to ask whether an emphasis should be placed on ‘degrowth’ of the sector in the future.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Advances in remote sensing of emperor penguins: first multi-year time series documenting trends in the global population
    (The Royal Society, 2024) LaRue, Michelle; Iles , David; Labrousse , Sara; Fretwell , Peter; Ortega , David; Devane , Eileen; Horstmann , Isabella; Viollat , Lise; Foster-Dyer , Rose; Le Bohec , Céline; Zitterbart , Daniel; Houstin , Aymeric; Richter , Sebastian; Winterl , Alexander; Wienecke , Barbara; Salas , Leo; Nixon , Monique; Barbraud, Christophe; Kooyman , Gerald; Ponganis P, Paul; Ainley D, David; Trathan P, Philip; Jenouvrier S, Stephanie
    Like many polar animals, emperor penguin populations are challenging to monitor because of the species' life history and remoteness. Consequently, it has been difficult to establish its global status, a subject important to resolve as polar environments change. To advance our understanding of emperor penguins, we combined remote sensing, validation surveys and using Bayesian modelling, we estimated a comprehensive population trajectory over a recent 10-year period, encompassing the entirety of the species’ range. Reported as indices of abundance, our study indicates with 81% probability that there were fewer adult emperor penguins in 2018 than in 2009, with a posterior median decrease of 9.6% (95% credible interval (CI) −26.4% to +9.4%). The global population trend was −1.3% per year over this period (95% CI = −3.3% to +1.0%) and declines probably occurred in four of eight fast ice regions, irrespective of habitat conditions. Thus far, explanations have yet to be identified regarding trends, especially as we observed an apparent population uptick toward the end of time series. Our work potentially establishes a framework for monitoring other Antarctic coastal species detectable by satellite, while promoting a need for research to better understand factors driving biotic changes in the Southern Ocean ecosystem.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Scale-dependent environmental effects on phenotypic distributions in Heliconius butterflies
    (Wiley, 2022) Pereira Martins AR; Pereira Martins, Lucas; Ho WZ; McMillan WO; Ready JS; Barrett R
    Identifying the relative importance of different mechanisms responsible for the emergence and maintenance of phenotypic diversity can be challenging, as multiple selective pressures and stochastic events are involved in these processes. Therefore, testing how environmental conditions shape the distribution of phenotypes can offer important insights on local adaptation, divergence, and speciation. The red-yellow Müllerian mimicry ring of Heliconius butterflies exhibits a wide diversity of color patterns across the Neotropics and is involved in multiple hybrid zones, making it a powerful system to investigate environmental drivers of phenotypic distributions. Using the distantly related Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene co-mimics and a multiscale distribution approach, we investigated whether distinct phenotypes of these species are associated with different environmental conditions. We show that Heliconius red-yellow phenotypic distribution is strongly driven by environmental gradients (especially thermal and precipitation variables), but that phenotype and environment associations vary with spatial scale. While co-mimics are usually predicted to occur in similar environments at large spatial scales, patterns at local scales are not always consistent (i.e., different variables are best predictors of phenotypic occurrence in different locations) or congruent (i.e., co-mimics show distinct associations with environment). We suggest that large-scale analyses are important for identifying how environmental factors shape broad mimetic phenotypic distributions, but that local studies are essential to understand the context-dependent biotic, abiotic, and historical mechanisms driving finer-scale phenotypic transitions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploration of children’s value patterns in relation to environmental education programmes
    (Frontiers Media SA, online-publication-date) Kelly, Tim; Bouman , Thijs; Kemp , Simon; Wijngaarden F, Franka; Grace , Randolph C
    During childhood we begin to develop values, including valuing the natural environment (biospheric values). Although biospheric values are believed to provide the foundation for pro-environmental behavior throughout the course of one’s life, little research has investigated these values in children. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between children’s endorsement of biospheric values, their pro-environmental behaviors, and their perception of their friends’ and peers’ endorsement of biospheric values. Moreover, we investigated whether these values and behaviors, as well as the hypothesized relationships, were affected by educational programmes that were already implemented at schools. The results showed that children generally strongly endorse biospheric values, and that biospheric values were positively related to some personal and group pro-environmental behaviors. The study also found that, as in previous research with adults, the participants believed that their friends and peers endorsed biospheric values significantly less than they themselves did. Environmental educational programs were partially effective in reducing the participants’ underestimation of their friends’ biospheric values and increased the likelihood of some group pro-environmental behaviors. Our findings highlight the need for further research to investigate the effects of group pro-environmental behaviors and the perception of group values.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Conservation education in Aotearoa-New Zealand: a values perspective
    (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022) Birdsall S; Kelly, Tim
    Throughout the world, Aotearoa-New Zealand is recognised for its extraordinary biodiversity. However, many species that make up this distinctive biodiversity are under threat of extinction due to human impacts, such as the ill-considered introduction of particular animals. Many New Zealanders participate in the protection and restoration of their environment, which involves the lethal control of these introduced animals. Primary school children (5–13 years old) engage in conservation education as part of their learning, which aims to develop their abilities to take informed action to protect and restore our environment, sometimes including lethal control of introduced animals. Recently, concerns have been raised that children learning about the lethal control of introduced animals does not align with the values that should be explored and encouraged according to Aotearoa-New Zealand’s national curriculum. We argue that conservation education, including learning about the lethal control of introduced animals, encourages children to explore and encourage these values, namely valuing the diversity in their heritages, ecological sustainability, participation for the common good, equity, innovation, and respect for others.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Bird electrocutions in New Zealand
    (2014) Kross, Sara
  • ItemOpen Access
    Brown marmorated stink bug overwintering aggregations are not regulated through vibrational signals during autumn dispersal
    (The Royal Society, 2020) Bedoya , Carol L.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Hayes , Michael; Leskey , Tracy C.; Morrison , William R.; Rice , Kevin B.; Nelson, Ximena
    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is regarded as one of the world's most pernicious invasive pest species, as it feeds on a wide range of economically important crops. During the autumn dispersal period, H. halys ultimately moves to potential overwintering sites, such as human-made structures or trees where it will alight and seek out a final overwintering location, often aggregating with other adults. The cues used during this process are unknown, but may involve vibrational signals. We evaluated whether vibrational signals regulate cluster aggregation in H. halys in overwintering site selection. We collected acoustic data for six weeks during the autumn dispersal period and used it to quantify movement and detect vibrational communication of individuals colonizing overwintering shelters. Both movement and vibrational signal production increased after the second week, reaching their maxima in week four, before decaying again. We found that only males produced vibrations in this context, yet there was no correlation between movement and vibrational signals, which was confirmed through playback experiments. The cues regulating the formation of aggregations remain largely unknown, but vibrations may indicate group size.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Author Correction: National identity predicts public health support during a global pandemic (Nature Communications, (2022), 13, 1, (517), 10.1038/s41467-021-27668-9)
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022) Van Bavel, J. J.; Cichocka, A.; Capraro , V.; Sjåstad , H.; Nezlek, J. B.; Pavlović, T.; Alfano, M.; Gelfand, M. J.; Azevedo, F.; Birtel, M. D.; Cislak, A.; Lockwood, P. L.; Ross, R. M.; Abts, K.; Agadullina, E.; Aruta, J. J. B.; Besharati, S. N.; Bor, A.; Choma, B. L.; Crabtree, C. D.; Cunningham, W. A.; De, K.; Ejaz, W.; Elbaek, C. T.; Findor, A.; Flichtentrei, D.; Franc, R.; Gjoneska, B.; Gruber, J.; Gualda, E.; Horiuchi, Y.; Huynh, T. L. D.; Ibanez, A.; Imran, M. A.; Israelashvili, J.; Jasko, K.; Kantorowicz, J.; Kantorowicz-Reznichenko, E.; Krouwel, A.; Laakasuo, M.; Lamm, C.; Leygue, C.; Lin, M. J.; Mansoor, M. S.; Marie, A.; Mayiwar, L.; Mazepus, H.; McHugh, C.; Minda, J. P.; Mitkidis, P.; Olsson, A.; Otterbring, T.; Packer, D. J.; Perry, A.; Petersen, M. B.; Puthillam, A.; Riaño-Moreno, J. C.; Rothmund, T.; Santamaría-García , H.; Schmid, P. C.; Stoyanov , D.; Tewari , S.; Todosijević , B.; Tsakiris , M.; Tung , H. H.; Umbreș , R. G.; Vanags , E.; Vlasceanu , M.; Vonasch , A.; Yucel, M.; Zhang , Y.; Abad , M.; Adler , E.; Akrawi , N.; Mdarhri, H. A.; Amara, H.; Amodio , D. M.; Antazo , B. G.; Apps , M.; Ay , F. C.; Ba , M. H.; Barbosa , S.; Bastian , B.; Berg, A.; Bernal-Zárate, M. P.; Bernstein, M.; Białek M, M.; Bilancini, E.; Bogatyreva, N.; Boncinelli, L.; Booth, J. E.; Borau, S.; Buchel, O.; Cameron, C. D.; Carvalho, C. F.; Celadin, T.; Cerami, C.; Chalise, H. N.; Cheng, X.; Cian, L.
    In this article the author name ‘Agustin Ibanez’ was incorrectly written as ‘Augustin Ibanez’. The original article has been corrected.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Chemical data evaluation: General considerations and approaches for IUPAC projects and the chemistry community (IUPAC Technical Report)
    (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2023) Shaw , David G.; Bruno , Ian; Chalk , Stuart; Hefter , Glenn; Hibbert , David Brynn; Hutchinson, Robin A.; Magalhães, M. Clara F.; Magee, Joseph; McEwen , Leah R.; Rumble , John; Russell, Greg; Waghorne , Earle; Walczyk , Thomas; Wallington , Timothy J.
    The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry has a long tradition of supporting the compilation of chemical data and their evaluation through direct projects, nomenclature and terminology work, and partnerships with international scientific bodies, government agencies, and other organizations. The IUPAC Interdivisional Subcommittee on Critical Evaluation of Data has been established to provide guidance on issues related to the evaluation of chemical data. In this first report, we define the general principles of the evaluation of scientific data and describe best practices and approaches to data evaluation in chemistry.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Validation of the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation for the Long-Term Measurement of Mood Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder
    (MDPI AG, 2022) Porter , Richard J.; Moot , Will; Inder , Maree L.; Crowe , Marie T.; Douglas , Katie M.; Carter, Janet; Frampton , Christopher
    The long-term burden of symptoms is an important outcome in bipolar disorder (BD). A method which has minimal burden of assessment uses a retrospective interview, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Examination (LIFE), although this may be subject to problems with recall. This study examines the relationship between the retrospective LIFE scale and concurrently-rated mood rating scales in two clinical trials of 18 months of psychotherapy for patients with BD. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were administered every eight to nine weeks and the LIFE was carried out every 6 months. Correlations between scores on mood rating scales and at equivalent times on the LIFE were examined, as well as of potential clinical moderators. There were significant correlations between LIFE depression ratings and concurrent MADRS score (r = 0.57) and between LIFE mania ratings and YMRS score (r = 0.40). In determining “mild depression” on the MADRS, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed an AUC of 0.78 for LIFE scores. Correlations, particularly for depression scores, were high even when the LIFE rating was several months before the interview, suggesting that the LIFE has validity in examining the burden of mood symptoms over time, with relatively little burden of assessment. Future research should examine the relationship between symptom burden and quality of life measured in this way.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A PCR-based assay for screening substrates for Aspergillus fumigatus for application in kiwi hatcheries
    (2023) Rowe, Stephen P.; Stott, Matthew; Brett B; Dhami MK
    Captive facilities across New Zealand strive to mimic natural conditions for captive animals as closely as possible. In the case of the kiwi (Apteryx spp.), captive habitats are augmented with natural stimuli such as soils, leaf litter, bark, plants, logs, and mosses. Interaction with these introduced stimuli has been shown to encourage normal foraging behaviour and is speculated to aid in inoculating young animals with healthy microbial communities. However, introducing non-sterile natural stimuli into the captive environment also carries the risk of exposing kiwi to diseases such as aspergillosis, coccidiosis, and candidiasis. Aspergillosis is of particular concern to rearing facilities – the disease is most commonly attributed to exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen. Here we present a PCR-based screen to qualitatively detect the presence and/or absence of A. fumigatus in soils. Soil samples collected from nesting sites of rowi (Ōkārito brown kiwi, Apteryx rowi) in the Ōkārito region of the West Coast were screened for A. fumigatus using a species-specific primer set coupled with a basic DNA extraction. Willowbank Wildlife Reserve soil and substrate samples were also screened as a baseline comparison representing captive rearing facilities. Results from the assays showed that the extraction technique was effective at isolating A. fumigatus DNA at detectable levels from a variety of soils, and that Ōkārito soils did not harbour a higher abundance of A. fumigatus than those found at Willowbank. This preliminary screening method could be used by facilities in New Zealand to quickly and cheaply screen soils and substrates for A. fumigatus before introducing them to captive enclosures.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Experimental characterization and automatic identification of stridulatory sounds inside wood
    (2021) Bedoya C; Nelson, Ximena; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Pawson, Stephen; Hayes M, Michael
    The propagation of animal vocalizations in water and in air is a well-studied phenomenon, but sound produced by bark and wood boring insects, which feed and reproduce inside trees, is poorly understood. Often being confined to the dark and chemically-saturated habitat of wood, many bark- and woodborers have developed stridulatory mechanisms to communicate acoustically. Despite their ecological and economic importance and the unusual medium used for acoustic communication, very little is known about sound production in these insects, or their acoustic interactions inside trees. Here, we use bark beetles (Scolytinae) as a model system to study the effects of wooden tissue on the propagation of insect stridulations and propose algorithms for their automatic identification. We characterize distance-dependence of the spectral parameters of stridulatory sounds, propose data-based models for the power decay of the stridulations in both outer and inner bark, provide optimal spectral ranges for stridulation detectability, and develop automatic methods for their detection and identification. We also discuss the acoustic discernibility of species cohabitating the same log. The species tested can be acoustically identified with 99% of accuracy at distances up to 20 cm and detected to the greatest extent in the 2-6 kHz frequency band. Phloem was a better medium for sound transmission than bark.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Long-term causal effects of far-right terrorism in New Zealand.
    (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2023) Bulbulia, Joseph; Afzali, Usman; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris; Gelfand M
    The Christchurch mosque attacks in 2019, committed by a radical right-wing extremist, resulted in the tragic loss of 51 lives. Following these events, there was a noticable rise in societal acceptance of Muslim minorities. Comparable transient reactions have been observed elsewhere. However, the critical questions remain: can these effects endure? Are enduring effects evident across the political spectrum? It is challenging to answer such questions because identifying long-term causal effects requires estimating unobserved attitudinal trajectories without the attacks. Here, we use six preattack waves of Muslim acceptance responses from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) to infer missing counterfactual trajectories (NZAVS cohort 2012, N=4,865; replicated in 2013 cohort, N=7,894). We find (1) the attacks initially boosted Muslim acceptance; (2) the magnitude of the initial Muslim acceptance boost was similar across the political spectrum; (3) no changes were observed in negative control groups; and (4) two- and three-year effects varied by baseline political orientation: liberal acceptance was stable, conservative acceptance grew relative to the counterfactual trend. Overall, the attacks added five years of growth in Muslim acceptance, with no regression to preattack levels over time. Continued growth among conservatives highlights the attack's failure to divide society. These results demonstrate the utility of combining methods for causal inference with national-scale panel data to answer psychological questions of basic human concern.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The thalamic reuniens isassociated with consolidation of non-spatial memory too
    (2023) Hamilton , Jennifer J.; Dalrymple-Alford, John
    The nucleus reuniens (RE) is situated in the midline thalamus and provides a key link between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This anatomical relationship positions the Re as an ideal candidate to facilitate memory consolidation. However, there is no evidence that this role extends beyond spatial memory and contextual fear memory, which are both strongly associated with hippocampal function. We, therefore, trained intact male Long–Evans rats on an odor–trace– object paired-associate task where the explicit 10-s delay between paired items renders the task sensitive to hippocampal function. Neurons in the RE showed significantly increased activation of the immediate early gene (Zif268) when rats were re-tested for previous non-spatial memory 25 days after acquisition training, compared to a group tested at 5-days post-acquisition, as well as a control group tested 25 days after acquisition but with a new pair of non-spatial stimuli, and home cage controls. The remote recall group also showed relatively augmented IEG expression in the superficial layers of the medial PFC (anterior cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex). These findings support the conclusion that the RE is preferentially engaged during remote recall in this non-spatial task and thus has a role beyond spatial memory and contextual fear memory.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Tale of Childhood Loss, Conditional Acceptance and a Fear of Abandonment: A Qualitative Study Taking a Narrative Approach to Eating Disorders
    (SAGE Publications, 2023) Watterson RL; Crowe M; Jordan J; Lovell, Sarah; Carter, Janet
    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious mental health illnesses, yet there is a need to better understand the illness experience to improve treatment outcomes. Qualitative research, and narrative approaches in particular, can elicit life stories that allow for the whole illness journey to be explored. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women with a history of an ED, identifying the life events they perceived were relevant to the onset of their ED through to recovery. Interviews were conducted with 18 women with lived experience of an ED. Through structural narrative analysis, an overarching storyline of childhood loss contributing to a belief of conditional acceptance, fear of abandonment and struggle to seek emotional support due to the fear of being a burden was identified. Negative experiences with the health sector were common. These findings have implications for the way medical professionals respond to help seeking and deliver treatment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Personality traits and night eating syndrome in women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022) Melunsky ND; Solmi F; Haime Z; Rowe S; McIntosh, Virginia; Carter, Janet; Jordan J
    Purpose: Previous research suggests that eating disorders may be associated with certain personality profiles; however, there is limited research investigating associations with night eating syndrome (NES). This research suggests harm avoidance personality trait is higher in NES individuals than in the general population, however, evidence of associations with other personality traits is inconsistent. To understand which personality traits are associated with NES symptoms, the current study aimed to improve understanding of the relationship between NES symptoms and a range of personality traits, addressing limitations in the earlier literature in this area by controlling for common confounders. Methods: Baseline data were analysed from an outpatient psychotherapy trial for 111 women with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Pre-treatment measures of personality traits (measured with the Temperament and character inventory—revised) and NES symptoms (measured with the Night eating questionnaire) were used. Regression analyses tested associations between these variables, adjusting for potential confounders, including age and ethnicity. Results: Low cooperativeness scores were associated with greater NES symptoms in the multivariable model (mean difference: − 0.10, 95% confidence intervals: − 0.20 to − 0.01, p = 0.033). There was weak evidence of associations between both high harm avoidance and low self-directedness personality traits and greater NES symptoms. Conclusions: This study adds to the limited research measuring associations between a range of personality traits and NES, addressing limitations of previous research. Weak evidence for an association between high harm avoidance and low self-directedness and increased NES symptoms was found. A novel association was found between low cooperativeness and greater NES symptoms. Further research is needed to validate its presence in those with and without comorbid eating disorders and to examine the relative change in NES, eating disorder symptoms and personality scores in treatments focusing on cooperativeness. Level of evidence: Level IV (cross-sectional data from a randomised controlled trial, CTB/04/08/139).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Hearing, Seeing and Feeling Speech: The Neurophysiological Correlates of Trimodal Speech Perception
    (2023) Hansmann , Doreen; Derrick , Donald; Theys, Catherine
    Introduction: To perceive speech, our brains process information from different sensory modalities. Previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has established that audio-visual information provides an advantage compared to auditory-only information during early auditory processing. In addition, behavioral research showed that auditory speech perception is not only enhanced by visual information but also by tactile information, transmitted by puffs of air arriving at the skin and aligned with speech. The current EEG study aimed to investigate whether the behavioral benefits of bimodal audio-aerotactile and trimodal audio-visual-aerotactile speech presentation are reflected in cortical auditory event-related neurophysiological responses. Methods: To examine the influence of multimodal information on speech perception, 20 listeners conducted a two-alternative forced-choice syllable identification task at three different signal-to-noise levels. Results: Behavioral results showed increased syllable identification accuracy when auditory information was complemented with visual information, but did not show the same effect for the addition of tactile information. Similarly, EEG results showed an amplitude suppression for the auditory N1 and P2 event-related potentials for the audio-visual and audio-visual-aerotactile modalities compared to auditory and audio-aerotactile presentations of the syllable/pa/. No statistically significant difference was present between audio-aerotactile and auditory-only modalities. Discussion: Current findings are consistent with past EEG research showing a visually induced amplitude suppression during early auditory processing. In addition, the significant neurophysiological effect of audio-visual but not audio aerotactile presentation is in line with the large benefit of visual information but comparatively much smaller effect of aerotactile information on auditory speech perception previously identified in behavioral research.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Author Correction: Psychological impact of far-right terrorism against Muslim minorities on national distress, community, and wellbeing (Scientific Reports, (2022), 12, 1, (1620), 10.1038/s41598-022-05678-x)
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022) Byrne , Kate G.; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Dorahy, Martin; Gale , Jessica; Afzali, Usman; Bulbulia , Joseph; Sibley , Chris G.
    The original version of this Article contained errors. In the Measures section, under the subheading ‘Sense of community’, “To measure sense of community, participants were asked to rate the item, “I feel a sense of community with others in my local neighbourhood” on a scale of 1 (“Strongly disagree”) to 5 (“Strongly agree”).” now reads: “To measure sense of community, participants were asked to rate the item, “I feel a sense of community with others in my local neighbourhood” on a scale of 1 (“Strongly disagree”) to 7 (“Strongly agree”).” As a result of this error, the y-axis in Figure 1 is incorrect. Y-axis scale only runs from 1 to 7. The original Figure 1 and accompanying legend appear below. The original Article has been corrected.