Item Open AccessThe consequences of competition: simulating the effects of research grant allocation strategies(SPRINGER, 2016) Höylä, T.; Bartneck, Christoph; Tiihonen, T.© 2016, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Researchers have to operate in an increasingly competitive environment in which funding is becoming a scarce resource. Funding agencies are unable to experiment with their allocation policies since even small changes can have dramatic effects on academia. We present a Proposal-Evaluation-Grant System (PEGS) which allows us to simulate different research funding allocation policies. We implemented four Resource Allocation Strategies (RAS) entitled Communism, Lottery, Realistic, and Ideal. The results show that there is a strong effect of the RAS on the careers of the researchers. In addition the PEGS investigated the influence of the paper writing skill and the grant review errors. Item Open AccessReciprocity in Human-Robot Interaction: A Quantitative Approach Through the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Ultimatum Game(SPRINGER, 2016) Sandoval, E. B.; Brandstetter, J.; Obaid, M.; Bartneck, ChristophReciprocity is an important factor in human–human interaction, so it can be expected that it should also play a major role in human–robot interaction (HRI). Participants in our study played the Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (RPDG) and the mini Ultimatum Game (mUG) with robot and human agents, with the agents using either Tit for Tat (TfT) or Random strategies. As part of the study we also measured the perceived personality traits in the agents using the TIPI test after every round of RPDG and mUG. The results show that the participants collaborated more with humans than with a robot, however they tended to be equally reciprocal with both agents. The experiment also showed the TfT strategy as the most profitable strategy; affecting collaboration, reciprocation, profit and joint profit in the game. Most of the participants tended to be fairer with the human agent in mUG. Furthermore, robots were perceived as less open and agreeable than humans. Consciousness, extroversion and emotional stability were perceived roughly the same in humans and robots. TfT strategy became associated with an extroverted and agreeable personality in the agents. We could observe that the norm of reciprocity applied in HRI has potential implications for robot design. Item Open AccessNotes on design and science in the HCI community(MIT Press - Journals, 2009) Bartneck, ChristophThe article discusses conflicts that exist between the science and design disciplines that comprise the human-computer interaction community. It explains that scientists have a tendency to value the scientific method over other creative processes. It attempts to identify values common to the scientific and design disciplines. It concludes that design uses the concept of universality in a way similar to the scientific use of the concept of generalizability, but that design focuses more on solutions to specific problems than on universal solutions and works on a social rather than intellectual level. It states that until the two communities agree on a common definition of quality, they will continue to tolerate each other but not help each other to succeed. Item Open AccessThe fruits of collaboration in a multidisciplinary field(Springer Nature, 2010) Bartneck, Christoph; Jun, H.Collaboration between researchers and between research organizations is generally considered a desirable course of action, in particular by some funding bodies. However, collaboration within a multidisciplinary community, such as the Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) community, can be challenging. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the CHI conference proceedings to determine if papers that have authors from different organization or countries receive more citations than papers that are authored by members of the same organization. There was no significant difference between these three groups, indicating that there is no advantage for collaboration in terms of citation frequency. Furthermore, we tested if papers written by authors from different organizations or countries receive more best paper awards or at least award nominations. Papers from only one organization received significantly fewer nominations than collaborative papers. Item Open AccessSensing senses - tactile feedback for the prevention of Decubitus ulcers(Springer Nature, 2010) Verbunt, M.; Bartneck, ChristophDecubitus ulcers, also known as pressure sores, is a major problem in health care, in particular for patients with spinal cord injuries. These patients cannot feel the discomfort that would urge healthy people to change their posture. We describe a system that uses a sensor mat to detect problematic postures and provides tactile feedback to the user. The results of our preliminary study with healthy subjects show that the tactile feedback is a viable option to spoken feedback. We envision the system being used for rehabilitation games, but also for everyday Decubitus ulcers prevention. © The Author(s) 2009. Item Open AccessDetecting h-index manipulation through self-citation analysis(Springer Nature, 2011) Bartneck, Christoph; Kokkelmans, S.The h-index has received an enormous attention for being an indicator that measures the quality of researchers and organizations. We investigate to what degree authors can inflate their h-index through strategic self-citations with the help of a simulation. We extended Burrell’s publication model with a procedure for placing self-citations, following three different strategies: random self-citation, recent self-citations and h-manipulating self-citations. The results show that authors can considerably inflate their h-index through self-citations. We propose the q-index as an indicator for how strategically an author has placed self-citations, and which serves as a tool to detect possible manipulation of the h-index. The results also show that the best strategy for an high h-index is publishing papers that are highly cited by others. The productivity has also a positive effect on the h-index. Item Open AccessThe end of the beginning - a reflection on the first five years of the HRI conference(Springer Nature, 2011) Bartneck, ChristophThis study presents a historical overview of the International Conference on Human Robot Interaction (HRI). It summarizes its growth, internationalization and collaboration. Rankings for countries, organizations and authors are provided. Furthermore, an analysis of the military funding for HRI papers is performed. Approximately 20% of the papers are funded by the US Military. The proportion of papers from the US is around 65% and the dominant role of the US is only challenged by the strong position of Japan, in particular by the contributions by ATR. Item Open AccessmoBeat: Using Interactive Music to Guide and Motivate Users During Aerobic Exercising(Springer Nature, 2011) van der Vlist, B.; Bartneck, Christoph; Mäueler, S.An increasing number of people are having trouble staying fit and maintaining a healthy bodyweight because of lack of physical activity. Getting people to exercise is crucial. However, many struggle with developing healthy exercising habits, due to hurdles like having to leave the house and the boring character of endurance exercising. In this paper, we report on a design project that explores the use of audio to motivate and provide feedback and guidance during exercising in a home environment. We developed moBeat, a system that provides intensity-based coaching while exercising, giving real-time feedback on training pace and intensity by means of interactive music. We conducted a within-subject comparison between our moBeat system and a commercially available heart rate watch. With moBeat, we achieved a comparable success rate: our system has a significant, positive influence on intrinsic motivation and attentional focus, but we did not see significant differences with regard to either perceived exertion or effectiveness. Although promising, future research is needed.