Shelter, retrofit, and reconstruction of housing: a summary of previously used strategies in developing regions applicable for the 2015 Lamjung, Nepal earthquake (2015)
The April 25, 2015 earthquake in Nepal caused significant damage to structures in many parts of the country. Rural areas were especially affected because of the location of the fault rupture, the relatively large rural population, and poor access to aid and relief. Since residents are particularly vulnerable to the lasting effects of earthquakes, it is crucial to mitigate the damage to houses through temporary shelters, semi-permanent housing, and permanent housing. This report intends to compile information on shelter, retrofit, and reconstruction strategies following previous natural disasters, particularly earthquakes. The purpose is not to recommend a specific strategy for shelters or reconstruction, but to provide a brief overview of potential options. Choice of one or more strategies would require a detailed ground assessment, and evaluation of the provided options based on cultural, logistical, and engineering considerations. The geography and current housing stock of Nepal are studied to inform in the availability of resources for reconstruction. When assessing shelter and reconstruction methods, the locally prevalent materials need to considered. An overview of common construction materials in Nepal, namely concrete, stone, brick, and wood, is provided. While all damage reports are still preliminary, common types of damage to the housing stock are presented for the purposes of evaluating retrofit and reconstruction strategies. Finally, potential temporary shelters whose materials can be reused for permanent housing, simple retrofit strategies, and reconstruction methods cognisant of the local culture are presented. The information in this report comes from technical resources from the Red Cross, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, and others. It has been compiled by PhD Candidates at Stanford University studying structural engineering and earthquake engineering. Ezra Jampole’s research focuses on developing inexpensive seismic isolation systems for light frame structures. Reagan Chandramohan’s research focuses on investigating the effects of duration of earthquake ground shaking on the collapse response of structures. Matthew Bandelt and Timothy Frank are investigating the use of high performance fiber reinforced cement-based composites for enhanced structural and life-cycle performance.
CitationChandramohan R, Jampole E, Bandelt M, Frank T (2015). Shelter, retrofit, and reconstruction of housing: a summary of previously used strategies in developing regions applicable for the 2015 Lamjung, Nepal earthquake. The World Bank.
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ANZSRC Fields of Research40 - Engineering::4005 - Civil engineering::400506 - Earthquake engineering
40 - Engineering::4005 - Civil engineering::400510 - Structural engineering
12 - Built Environment and Design::1202 - Building
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