A machine learning examination of hydroxyl radical differences among model simulations for CCMI-1 (2020)
The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays critical roles within the troposphere, such as determining the lifetime of methane (CH ), yet is challenging to model due to its fast cycling and dependence on a multitude of sources and sinks. As a result, the reasons for variations in OH and the resulting methane lifetime (τCH ), both between models and in time, are difficult to diagnose. We apply a neural network (NN) approach to address this issue within a group of models that participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). Analysis of the historical specified dynamics simulations performed for CCMI indicates that the primary drivers of τCH differences among 10 models are the flux of UV light to the troposphere (indicated by the photolysis frequency JO1D), the mixing ratio of tropospheric ozone (O3), the abundance of nitrogen oxides (NO = NO C NO ), and details of the various chemical mechanisms that drive OH. Water vapour, carbon monoxide (CO), the ratio of NO V NO , and formaldehyde (HCHO) explain moderate differences in τCH , while isoprene, methane, the photolysis frequency of NO by visible light (JNO ), overhead ozone column, and temperature account for little to no model variation in τCH . We also apply the NNs to analysis of temporal trends in OH from 1980 to 2015. All models that participated in the specified dynamics historical simulation for CCMI demonstrate a decline in τCH during the analysed timeframe. The significant contributors to this trend, in order of importance, are tropospheric O3, JO1D, NO , and H2O, with CO also causing substantial interannual variability in OH burden. Finally, the identified trends in τCH are compared to calculated trends in the tropospheric mean OH concentration from previous work, based on analysis of observations. The comparison reveals a robust result for the effect of rising water vapour on OH and τCH , imparting an increasing and decreasing trend of about 0.5 % decade-1, respectively. The responses due to NO , ozone column, and temperature are also in reasonably good agreement between the two studies. 4 4 4 x 2 x 4 2 2 4 4 x 4 4 x
CitationNicely JM, Duncan BN, Hanisco TF, Wolfe GM, Salawitch RJ, Deushi M, Haslerud AS, Jöckel P, Josse B, Kinnison DE, Klekociuk A, Manyin ME, Marécal V, Morgenstern O, Murray LT, Myhre G, Oman LD, Pitari G, Pozzer A, Quaglia I, Revell LE, Rozanov E, Stenke A, Stone K, Strahan S, Tilmes S, Tost H, Westervelt DM, Zeng G (2020). A machine learning examination of hydroxyl radical differences among model simulations for CCMI-1. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 20(3). 1341-1361.
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ANZSRC Fields of Research37 - Earth sciences::3701 - Atmospheric sciences::370104 - Atmospheric composition, chemistry and processes
46 - Information and computing sciences::4611 - Machine learning::461104 - Neural networks
37 - Earth sciences::3701 - Atmospheric sciences::370109 - Tropospheric and stratospheric physics
37 - Earth sciences::3702 - Climate change science::370202 - Climatology
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Nicely, J.M.; Duncan, B.N.; Hanisco, T.F.; Wolfe, G.M.; Salawitch, R.J.; Deushi, M.; Haslerud, A.S.; Jöckel, P.; Josse, B.; Kinnison, D.E.; Klekociuk, A.; Manyin, M.E.; Marécal, V.; Morgenstern, O.; Murray, L.T.; Myhre, G.; Oman, L.D.; Pitari, G.; Pozzer, A.; Quaglia, I.; Revell, Laura E.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Stone, K.; Strahan, S.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; Westervelt, D.M.; Zeng, G. (Copernicus GmbH, 2020)Abstract. The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays critical roles within the troposphere, such as determining the lifetime of methane (CH4), yet is challenging to model due to its fast cycling and dependence on a multitude of ...
Formaldehyde in the Tropical Western Pacific: Chemical Sources and Sinks, Convective Transport, and Representation in CAM-Chem and the CCMI Models Anderson DC; Nicely JM; Wolfe GM; Hanisco TF; Salawitch RJ; Canty TP; Dickerson RR; Apel EC; Baidar S; Bannan TJ; Blake NJ; Chen D; Dix B; Fernandez RP; Hall SR; Hornbrook RS; Gregory Huey L; Josse B; Jöckel P; Kinnison DE; Koenig TK; Le Breton M; Marécal V; Morgenstern O; Oman LD; Pan LL; Percival C; Plummer D; Revell LE; Rozanov E; Saiz-Lopez A; Stenke A; Sudo K; Tilmes S; Ullmann K; Volkamer R; Weinheimer AJ; Zeng G (2017)©2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HO x . In remote marine environments, such as the tropical western ...
Morgenstern O; Hegglin MI; Rozanov E; O'Connor FM; Abraham NL; Akiyoshi H; Archibald AT; Bekki S; Butchart N; Chipperfield MP; Deushi M; Dhomse SS; Garcia RR; Hardiman SC; Horowitz LW; Joeckel P; Josse B; Kinnison D; Lin M; Mancini E; Manyin ME; Marchand M; Marecal V; Michou M; Oman LD; Pitari G; Plummer DA; Revell LE; Saint-Martin D; Schofield R; Stenke A; Stone K; Sudo K; Tanaka TY; Tilmes S; Yamashita Y; Yoshida K; Zeng G (2017)We present an overview of state-of-the-art chemistry–climate and chemistry transport models that are used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). The CCMI aims to conduct a detailed evaluation ...