Spatial-temporal patterns of childhood immunisation in New Zealand (2006–2017): an improving pattern but not for all? (2020)
Background: Declining childhood immunisation represents a serious public health problem globally, and in New Zealand. To guide efforts to increase immunisation coverage, this study monitors nationwide change in immunisation coverage since the introduction of the National Immunisation Register (NIR) in 2005 and spatiotemporal patterns of immunisation coverage from 2006 to 2017. Methods: The study population consisted of 4,482,499 individual immunisation records that were obtained from the NIR (2005–2017). Data on yearly and average immunisation coverage in census area units (CAUs) in New Zealand were calculated by milestone age (6/8/12/18/24/60/144 months). Data for 2005 were excluded due to missing records in the introductory period of the NIR. We analysed spatial and spatiotemporal patterns using Gi* and SaTScan methods. Results: Immunisation coverage improved since the introduction of the NIR in 2005, reaching a peak in 2014 and 2015 with a slight decrease in 2016 and 2017. Well and insufficiently immunised areas were identified with spatial autocorrelation analyses highlighting several hot- and cold-spots. Comparison of CAUs with neighbouring CAUs allowed for the identification of places where immunisation coverage was significantly higher or lower than expected, over both time and space. Conclusion: We provide the first spatiotemporal analysis of childhood immunisation in New Zealand that utilises a large sample of over 4.4 million individual immunisation records. Our spatial analyses enable policymakers to understand the development of childhood immunisation coverage and make more effective prevention strategies in New Zealand.
CitationMarek L, Hobbs M, Wiki J, McCarthy J, Tomintz M, Campbell M, Kingham S (2020). Spatial-temporal patterns of childhood immunisation in New Zealand (2006–2017): an improving pattern but not for all?. European Journal of Public Health.
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Keywordsimmunisation coverage; New Zealand; spatiotemporal pattern; mapping; national registers
ANZSRC Fields of Research11 - Medical and Health Sciences::1117 - Public Health and Health Services::111704 - Community Child Health
11 - Medical and Health Sciences::1117 - Public Health and Health Services::111717 - Primary Health Care
RightsAll rights reserved unless otherwise stated
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Area-level deprivation, childhood dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations and community water fluoridation: evidence from New Zealand Hobbs, Matthew; Wade, A.; Jones, P.; Marek, Lukas; Tomintz, Melanie; Sharma, K.; McCarthy, J.; Mattingley, B.; Campbell, Malcolm; Kingham, Simon (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019)Background: We examined the association between area-level deprivation and dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations (ASH) and considered the moderating effect of community water fluoridation (CWF). The hypothesis was ...
Investigating spatial variation and change (2006–2017) in childhood immunisation coverage in New Zealand Marek L; Hobbs M; McCarthy J; Wiki J; Tomintz M; Campbell M; Kingham, Simon (Elsevier BV, 2020)Background Immunisation is a safe and effective way of protecting children and adults against harmful diseases. However, immunisation coverage of children is declining in some parts of New Zealand. Aim Use a ...