Item Open AccessTaming Investment Risk in the Philippines: Multilateral Mining Regimes,National Coping Strategies and Local Tension(2011) Hatcher, PascaleDespite'the'stern'admonishments'of'the'prominent'Extractive' Industry'Review' in'2003,'the'World'Bank'Group'(WBG)'has'continued'to'promote'the'expansion'of'mining' activities' in' resource' rich' clientEcountries.' While' keeping' in' line' with' its' traditional' mantra' on' the' economic' benefits' of' the' sector' in' cashEstrapped' countries,' poverty' reduction'and'environmental' sustainability'have'become'in'recent'years,' the'new'porteE étandard'to'justify'the'need'for'the'WBG'to'remain'actively'involved'in'the'sector.'Building' on' the' cases' of' the' Philippines,' Papua'New' Guinea' and' Lao' PDR,' three' of' Asia’s' richest' countries' in' term' of' mineral' endowment,' this' paper' analyses' this' new' social' and' environmental'narrative'in'conjunction'with'the'highly'political'nature'of'the'role'played by'the'WBG'in'the'mining'sector'of'its'countryEclients'over'time.'The'cases'suggest'that'the' WBG'has'played'a'key'role'in'influencing'a'wave'of'new'mining'regimes'in'the'region.'It'is' argued' that' these' new' regimes,' which' comprises' multilateral' social' and' environmental' safeguards,' circumscribes' the' risks' faced' by' industry,' rather' than' by' local' populations.' While' successful' in' stimulating' foreign' direct' investments' in' the' sector,' these' regimes' might'also'prove'to'be'ineffective'in'taming'local'and'national'resentment'against'mining' activities.'Crucially,'the'engineering'of'mining'regimes'and'normEsettings'in'multilateral' arenas'brings'forth'concerns'relating'to'the'legitimacy'of'the'transformations'of'the'roles' and' responsibilities' assigned' to' local' mining' stakeholders,' as' well' as' the' possible' subsequent'contraction'of'local'political'spaces.' Item Open AccessLocal Communities and Multilateral Safeguards: The Mining Regime of LaoPDR(2012) Hatcher, PascaleSix years ago, the World Bank Group (WBG) embraced a new philosophy for its involvement in mining activities. After decades of promotion of highly liberalised mining codes, the Group repositioned poverty reduction and environmental sustainability as the fundamental objectives of its involvement in the sector. Within this new approach, local participation occupies centre stage, whereby a loosely defined mix of local associations, as well as residents of local communities affected by mining activities, are to have a voice in every stage of a given mining project. Building on the case of Lao PDR, this paper investigates both the participatory model promoted by the WBG, and the political underpinning of its implementation process. The analysis of the socio-environmental model promoted by the Bank suggests that the involvement of local communities is ensconced within a framework which conceives participatory schemes as a management tool to circumscribe the risks faced by mining investors on the one hand, and the enabling-state on the other. While successful in acknowledging the socio-environmental legacy of mining activities, the implementation process of such a model is proving to fall short of its promises. Item Open AccessThe Political Economy of enhancing children's rights through mineral rents : the case of Mongolia.(UNRISD, 2016) Campbell B; Roy-Grégoire E; Hatcher, PascaleSummary Populated by predominantly young people, Mongolia’s economy has relied heavily in recent years on mining. After several years of boom, the recent decrease in mining rents has only emphasized the pressing need for linking mining revenues to continuing demands in social expenditure, especially in ways that promote the rights of the child. While geared at attracting foreign investors for large-scale mining activities, the more liberal norms adopted by Mongolia since its political transition may have hampered the implementation of a development model informed by a rights-based approach. Moreover, the particular set of norms driving Mongolia’s mining boom appears to be displacing, at least partially, the policy debates over the country’s mining governance to the transnational level. In turn, such trends seem to explain why local and national socio-environmental issues pertaining to the sector have at times been addressed in technocratic terms that cannot easily conform to a rights approach. The paper reviews the historical progression of the country’s mining regime and its contribution to government revenues, analyses the linkages between mining rent and social expenditure, focusing on children and the extractive sector’s ability/willingness to take account of children’s rights in the small-scale and artisanal mining (SSAM) sector. It concludes that Mongolia should establish a coherent long-term poverty reduction strategy that encompasses both the economic benefits and potential harm of extractive industries; strengthen socio-environmental regulation and enforcement capacity: ratify and apply international instruments regarding access to information, public participation in decision making, and access to justice in environmental matters: put in place effective prevention and remedy mechanisms for human rights abuses by private companies; and pursue its efforts towards the legalization, regulation and monitoring of SSAM using a rights-based approach. Item Open AccessPolitics as Anti-Politics: The World Bank’s Neopopulist Agenda(2009) Hatcher, PascaleBuilding on the case of the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS), this working paper provides an analysis of the World Bank’s new aid allocation mechanisms in relation to representative politics. As such, this paper provides an analysis of why parliaments have overwhelmingly been bypassed in the PRS process and more interestingly, how they have come to be replaced de facto by certain depoliticised segments of civil society. It is argued that PRS are mechanisms by which the Bank attempts to construct a new mode of authority by attempting to capture, coopt and mobilise civil society elements behind the market agenda. Such process represents a form of neopopulism that bypasses existing political arrangements and substitutes new forms of social contract with newly depoliticised stakeholders. The paper concludes by analysing the possible impact of such changes on issues of rights, citizenship and political contestation. Item Open AccessThe Political Economy of Financing Children’s Rights through Extractive Industries in the Philippines(UNRISD, 2016) Hatcher, Pascale; Grugel JB; Singh JNThe surging investments in the extractive industries (EI) that began in the 1980s, as well as the commodity boom between 2002 and 2011, have increased the significance of the sector in national economic development. This paper takes the Philippines as a case study and provides a detailed analysis of two key aspects of mining governance: first, the political challenges in realizing a more positive role for EI in social development, particularly in promoting children’s rights and children’s welfare, and second, the political economy dynamics that might underpin the creation of a welfare regime able to sustain social investments for children. Item Open AccessEthnoelephantology and The Multispeces Turn- New Approaches to Human-Elephant Relations(2014) Locke PHumans and elephants have lived together and shared space together in diverse ways for millennia. The intersections between these thinking and feeling species have been differently explored, for different reasons, by disciplines across the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Such disciplinary divisions, predicated on oppositions of human/animal and nature/culture, are integral to the configuration of modernist thought. However, posthumanist and biocultural thinking questions the underlying epistemological conventions, thereby opening up interdisciplinary possibilities for human-animal studies. In relation to issues of conflict and coexistence, this paper charts the emergence of an interdisciplinary research programme and discursive space for human-elephant intersections under the rubric of ethnoelephantology. Recognizing continuities between the sentient and affective lifeworlds of humans and elephants, the mutual entanglements of their social, historical, and ecological relations, and the relevance of combining social and natural science methodologies, it surveys recent research from anthropology, history, and geography that exemplifies this new approach. Item Open AccessHumans, Elephants, and Interspecies Intimacy in the Chitwan National Park, Nepal(Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society, Munich, Germany, 2015) Locke P Item Open AccessEthnoelephantology and The Multispeces Turn- New Approaches to Human-Elephant Relations(2014) Locke PHumans and elephants have lived together and shared space together in diverse ways for millennia. The intersections between these thinking and feeling species have been differently explored, for different reasons, by disciplines across the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Such disciplinary divisions, predicated on oppositions of human/animal and nature/culture, are integral to the configuration of modernist thought. However, posthumanist and biocultural thinking questions the underlying epistemological conventions, thereby opening up interdisciplinary possibilities for human-animal studies. In relation to issues of conflict and coexistence, this paper charts the emergence of an interdisciplinary research programme and discursive space for human-elephant intersections under the rubric of ethnoelephantology. Recognizing continuities between the sentient and affective lifeworlds of humans and elephants, the mutual entanglements of their social, historical, and ecological relations, and the relevance of combining social and natural science methodologies, it surveys recent research from anthropology, history, and geography that exemplifies this new approach. Item Open Access Item Open AccessHikaru Yamashita, Humanitarian Space and International Politics: The Creation of Safe Areas (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2004)(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2008) Moses, Jeremy Item Open AccessPatman, R. and Rudd, S. (eds.), Sovereignty Under Siege? Globalization and New Zealand, (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005, pp. 234).(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2007) Moses, J.This edited collection is an ambitious but ultimately unsatisfying attempt to examine the impact of globalisation upon the sovereignty of New Zealand. The volume begins with a basic introduction to the issues of sovereignty and globalisation and lays out the rationale for focusing on New Zealand in this context, with the argument that ‘New Zealand’s response to globalization should shed some light on both the intensity and extent of global integration’ and that the ‘New Zealand case study also promises to illuminate the role of the small state in the new global context.’ To these ends, the collection is presented in three parts, the first dealing with ‘Political and Economic Engagement,’ the second with ‘National Identity,’ and the third with ‘Security and Foreign Policy Directions.’ Item Open AccessRichard Caplan, International Governance of War-Torn Territories: Rule and Reconstruction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006),291 pp.(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2008) Moses, J.With the limited acceptance of the ‘responsibility to protect’ at the 2005 UN World Summit, it appears that the exercise of humanitarian intervention – and the related peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations that follow – will remain a feature of international politics for the forseeable future. With this in mind, Richard Caplan’s well organised analysis of the successes and failures of recent post-conflict ‘transitional administrations’ – in Eastern Slavonia, Bosnia, Kosovo, and East Timor – that have been managed by international authorities is a useful text for practitioners and scholars alike. Item Open AccessWalter Laqueur (ed.), Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages (New York: Reed Press, 2004), 520 pp.(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2006) Moses, J. Item Open AccessM.L. West (Ed),The Epic Cycle: A Commentary on the lost Troy Epics. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2013; 352pp(University of Canterbury. School of Humanities and Creative Arts, 2014) O'Sullivan, P. Item Open AccessNotes from the field: Research and the Indecency of Thinking(University of Canterbury. Aotahi School of M?ori and Indigenous Studies, 2014) Cooper, G. Item Open AccessElephant Training in Nepal: Multispecies Ethnography and Rites of Passage(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2012) Locke, P.In this presentation Piers draws on his ethnographic research with working elephants and their handlers in the lowland national parks of Nepal, focussing in particular on elephant training at the Khorsor Elephant Breeding Centre. It is argued that the recently adapted elephant training practices do not merely consist of a practical process whereby juvenile elephants are made ready to respond to handlers in their future working lives. Rather, they also represent a rite of passage, by which both the principal handler and his elephant together achieve a new status. This ritual process is described in relation to anthropological theory developed by Van Gennep, Turner, and Bloch, but with the novel contention that it can also be applied to non-human persons. As such, this argument is also situated within the emerging field of multispecies ethnography, which claims that in a world of complex entanglements the object of anthropological enquiry can consist of more than just human beings. Item Open AccessThe Hattisar: The Integral Role of The Elephant Stable in the Apparatus of Lowland Nepali Park Management(University of Canterbury. School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, 2012) Locke, P.In this paper I examine the Nepali elephant stable or hattisar, tracing its history of change and continuity within the broader context of Nepali state and society. I argue that although the uses for which captive elephants are deployed has changed as Nepal has embraced modern concerns of political reform, development and biodiversity conservation, the institutional sub-culture of the government stable or sarkari hattisar remains rooted in the structures and practices that emerged in the era of regal hunting expeditions from which it emerged. With its own elaborated system of ranks and roles, I argue that the hattisar retains its own distinctive Tharu character as an enclaved and total institution. By providing an encompassing social environment in which men live and work, and are required to make intense and enduring commitments to their elephant companions, elephant handlers or hattisares represent an occupational community with their own distinct group habitus of attitudes, dispositions, competencies and forms of know-how, which is essential to the management of Nepal’s lowland national parks and conservation areas. Item Open AccessMax Podstolski: Saying the ineffable(The Primitive Bird Group, 2010) Caballero Rodriguez, B.This article discusses Max Podstolski's lattest work in the light of Heidegger, Nietsche and Zambrano's philosophy. The article suggests the use of the Nietzschean concepts of the Apollonian and the Dyonisian as hermeneutic tools to understand the tensions involved in Podstolski's relationship to rationality and being through the framework of his paintings. Item Open AccessThe Knowledge Economy/Society: The Latest Example of “Measurement Without Theory”?(Department of Economics, 2008) Oxley, L.; Walker, P.; Thorns, D.; Wang, H.The world has embraced a set of concepts (knowledge driven growth) which are seen as the ‘core of future growth and wellbeing’ without any commonly agreed notion of what they are, how they might be measured, and crucially therefore, how they actually do (or might) affect economic growth and social wellbeing. The theory of how the mechanism works lacks important detail.