Item Open AccessThe Christchurch community at war, 1914-1918 : society, discourse and power(2003) Parsons, Gwen AliciaThe Christchurch community was divided in its response to the First World War. Supporters and opponents of the war promoted rival discourses in an attempt to dictate the parameters and premises of debate. On the one hand, pro-war discourse, which was promulgated almost exclusively by members of the Christchurch elite, was designed to exclude opposition to the war. It identified support for the conflict with New Zealand patriotism and imperial loyalty; it assumed that citizens had a duty to defend the state; it contrasted German barbarism with British traditions of liberty, underpinning claims that the war was just and fought in defence of Christian civilisation; it ennobled individual participation in the war effort by promoting a discourse of sacrifice with roots in Christian doctrine; and it presented conscription as an egalitarian doctrine based on fairness and equality of sacrifice. Pro-war discourse pervaded the public space, it set the parameters for most public comment on the war, it was supported by censorship, and it was encoded in legislation suppressing dissent. Dissenting discourse, on the other hand, was promulgated almost exclusively by the leaders of organised labour. It drew on socialist discourse, presenting the war as a device through which members of the capitalist class furthered their own interests; it co-opted the discourse of British liberty to protest against conscription; it manipulated the discourse of equality of sacrifice to argue that conscription of wealth should accompany the conscription of working class men; and it used the same discourse to protest against the exploitation of working class families by war profiteers. Dissenting discourse was far less pervasive than pro-war discourse; it was confined to a group that claimed to represent a single class, rather than the whole community; attempts to propagate it were often ignored by the mainstream media; and it did not affect the official response to the war. However, it did have some influence in working class communities, and anti-war candidates continued to poll well in working class electorates during and after the war. Item Open AccessThe coalmining industry of the Westport district(1927) Doel, OrmondeIn writing the following dissertation my aim has been to give, as far as possible, a comprehensive account of the coalmining industry of those townships in the Westport district which lie along the thirty miles of railway which connects Westport at the mouth of Buller to Seddonville on the Mokihinui. Hence I have not mentioned the one or two very small mines in the Buller Gorge, nor does my subject include the mines in the Greymouth district comprising the Grey coalfield. The importance of the Buller collieries is a recognised fact in New Zealand, firstly because they produce about one quarter of the Dominion's annual coal tonnage and employ over one thousand men, secondly, because the district is one of the few bituminous coal areas in New Zealand; and lastly because the industry is the life blood of the West Coast, now that the days of the gold seekers are but a memory. Of the mines dealt with, those belonging to the Westport Coal Company have received a more intensive treatment than the others, the reason being that these collieries are the largest in New Zealand and they have been responsible for four fifths of the coal produced in the Buller district. The numerous small mines which have been worked near Seddonville since the abandonment of the State Golliery there in 1914 have been dealt wlth rather meagrely, but then their size and value are not sufficient to warrant a more detailed description , otherwise a rather distorted idea of their importance may be formed. Item Open AccessA city built upon a swamp : the story of the drainage of Christchurch, 1850-1903(1942) Hercus, Agnes IsabelIn this thesis I have tried to show that the Canterbury Settlement, inaugurated by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his associates and planned to a greater degree than any other British colonial possession, nevertheless failed in at least one important aspect. In the life of any community the promotion of the physical well-being of its members should be one of the fore- most considerations of its legislators. True, these latter cannot afford to ignore spiritual and cultural concerns. But then it is also true that religion and education flourish more vigorously in an atmosphere unrestricted as far as possible by hampering rules and regulations. The natural leaders in such things who will be found in any normally constituted community are those best fitted to secure their promotion. On the other hand, such matters as road-building, the construction of public works, and drainage, cannot be left to the enterprise of the individual without chaos resulting. The Canterbury Associates failed to see the spiritual, the cultural and the phys1cal needs of the community in their proper prospective. Item Open AccessAid to Asia : the origins of New Zealand's post-war foreign policy, 1943-50(1984) Falconer, Wilma MargaretIt is the purpose of this thesis to establish that the development of New Zealand's post-war external aid policy in the years, 1943-1950, was a result of the New Zealand government's dependent relationship with the United Kingdom. Furthermore it is our contention that the New Zealand government did not independently adopt this aid policy but rather, that the exigencies of the United Kingdom's post-war economic reconstruction, particularly in relation to its Asian Commonwealth and Empire, required the support of its Dominion governments. At the request of the United Kingdom, the New Zealand government, compelled by tradition and economic dependency, supported British-interests in Asia in the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, and in the Commonwealth based Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic Development in South and South-East Asia. The economic and political circumstances surrounding the development of New Zealand's external aid policy, are examined in this thesis in three chapters. Item Open Access"And there shall be a Highway, and a way" : the history of the Port Hills-Akaroa Summit road scheme, with special reference to the work of Henry George Ell(1944) Hammersley, Lillian JoanThe half-remembrance of lively newspaper controversies of ten years ago, coupled with the enjoyment of many holiday walks over the Port Hills, prompted me to begin searching out the story of the Summit Road. I then had no idea of the years of struggle I should have to record, nor anything more than a dim mental picture of the founder ofthe Scheme. In tracing the story it has become increasingly difficult to remain impartial, so dominating is the figure of Mr. Ell. I have tried, while recounting the greatness of his achievement, to state the case for his opponents as fully as possible, and to show to what extent his own faults hindered the fulfilment of his dream. It has also been my aim to depict Harry Ell as a second generation "pioneer". His ideals of public service, of preserving and fostering natural beauty, and of honouring the traditions of the mother-land, were a direct inheritance from the "Pilgrims" of the Canterbury settlement. Their self conscious idealism has been derided by some of those who now enjoy the garden-city they created. Mr. Ell's dreams were also laughed at, but thousands benefit from his foresight and tenacity of purpose. Item Open AccessMitigating the threat that voluntary bioenhancement poses to autonomy.(2023) Eder, JamesNew technologies are likely to emerge in the coming decades that significantly enhance humans’ biology. But there are many examples in recent human history of new inventions, such as leaded petrol and asbestos, that are released to the public without a full understanding of their negative impacts. The purpose of this thesis is to anticipate how bioenhancement will negatively impact autonomy and suggest strategies that mitigate such harm. Some scholars have controversially argued that bioenhancement should be made compulsory, while others have responded by saying that doing so would grossly violate people’s autonomy. But I highlight that even the voluntary use of bioenhancement poses a threat to autonomy. Just as voluntarily drinking alcohol can undermine our judgement and decisionmaking, so too can voluntarily bioenhancing ourselves with other drugs or technology. This thesis analyses theories of autonomy to assess the impact of bioenhancement on autonomy. I analyse how autonomy is impacted differently depending on whether bioenhancement targets human cognition, emotions or behaviour. Nudge theory proposes that decision-making can be influenced by exploiting a contemporary understanding of human psychology and behaviour to guide individuals toward specific choices, without undermining their autonomy. I examine the relationship between nudge theory and autonomy. I argue that designing bioenhancements as “bionudges” can mitigate the risk of undermining human autonomy and instead promote it. Item Open AccessSocial work competencies in Aotearoa New Zealand : a critical review.(2023) Lowe, Simon MarkProfessional competencies for social workers in Aotearoa New Zealand have been subject to many changes in the last 25 years. The sometimes competing roles of the professional association and the regulatory body have confused social workers and employers alike. In 2019, an amendment to the Social Workers Registration Act (2003) stipulated mandatory registration for social workers, and changes were made to the ways newly qualified social workers were assessed as competent to practise and how qualified and registered social workers were assessed to maintain their annual practising certificate. The literature identifies many different opinions about the purpose of competencies within the social work profession, ranging from the need for a competence structure to provide a baseline of proficiency against which social workers can be assessed to assertions that competencies unwittingly restrict creativity for social workers and impinge on their practice – becoming a metaphorical political straitjacket. The research reported in this thesis sought to ascertain whether the method of assessing social work competence in Aotearoa New Zealand supports social workers to develop and maintain competent social work practice. For this study, qualitative data were collected between 2015 and 2017 from semi-structured interviews with focus groups and individual key informant social workers. I used critical reflection to strengthen the research process by journaling at each stage of the research process. The 56 participants were asked to describe their experiences and expectations. Although the participants were supportive of recent changes in the competence assessment process, they identified several tensions and concerns about the maintenance of professional integrity, including: noticeable gaps in, and a lack of, regular supervision; an over-reliance on supervision as a method to achieve and account for competent practice; apprehensions about the mode of supervision; and disquiet about the lack of a focussed structure to monitor the development of postgraduate skills. This research also identified positive developmental outcomes for supervisors through active supervision of student and practising social workers. This research suggests that a framework of practice be developed for undergraduate and postgraduate social work education, and recommends that once registered, social workers should not need to focus specifically on continuous professional development that re-asserts their ability to meet the core competence standards. Recognition that students achieve competence when they they successfully complete their first professional qualification then enables qualified social workers to focus on honing appropriate practice skills and specialisms through postgraduate study to enhance the capability and competence of them individually and the profession as a whole. Item Open Access"And now for the news"-- : media in New Zealand society(2001) Besley, Andrew LawrenceThis thesis explores the role of media in New Zealand society with specific reference to radio in Christchurch. It explores the media of radio from three different, but linked, perspectives: geography, culture and language. The geography of media identifies the spatial distribution of radio stations within New Zealand and Christchurch at four hierarchical levels: international, national, community and local. The culture of media examines Christchurch radio stations to find out how radio stations view themselves in relation to their audience. It also considers the audience profiles of the radio stations and asks the question: why do people choose the radio stations that they do? The language of media looks at the speech of radio announcers, specifically newsreaders to find out how the announcers attract and identify their audience. The thesis concludes with a suggestion for future research possibilities using the geographical, cultural and language framework explored in this thesis. Item Open AccessVariation in NZE syntax and morphology : a study of the acceptance and use of grammatical variants among Canterbury and West Coast teenagers(1995) Quinn, HeidiThis thesis discusses the methodology and results of a study of syntactic and morphological variation in the speech of Canterbury and West Coast high school students. Eight groups of fourth and fifth formers were presented with written questionnaires designed to test the acceptance and use of pronoun case forms, double comparison, have deletion, preterite variants, second person plural yous, the past· participle gotten, the construction should of did, and the verb form be's. Voluntary informal interviews with groups of students complemented the main survey, as did a small attitude study among teacher trainees and linguistics students. The data gathered suggest that variation in New Zealand English is not limited to phonological and l xical features but extends to syntax and morphology as well.. Socioeconomic status emerged as the most important extralinguistic factor influencing acceptance and use of grammatical variants in this study. Gender, location, and ethnicity appeared relevant to variation in certain areas. Survey results also indicate considerable language-internal conditioning on the occurrence of syntactic and morphological variants. Despite possible differences in the status and frequencies of some grammatical forms the variation observed largely parallels that reported for other varieties of English. Item Open AccessWhat do teacher aides think their role is?(1998) Hansen, John Albert JosephThis thesis seeks an answer to the question: "What do teacher aides think their role is?" The answer to the question was obtained through using the following method First, local and overseas literature was perused for information regarding teacher aides. A qualitative approach to establish major aspects of the role of teacher aide was implemented by interviewing two women who currently perform the role. The women were then observed at work as teacher aides. From the literature review and the interviews and observations a survey was compiled and undertaken of fifty-five Christchurch teacher aides. The quantitative information so gained was compared to, and tested against, the other information to ascertain what teacher aides think their role is. Paid teacher aides have become a crucial part of the educational process for many New Zealand children. The Education Act 1989 "gives children and young people with special education needs an equal right with all others to enrol and receive education in state schools" (Human Rights Commission, 1998: 2). Consequently, many parents of such children prefer to have their children 'mainstreamed'. Many children require the services of a paid teacher aide to facilitate their access to the curriculum. It is, therefore, necessary to understand what teacher aides think their role is. To some degree, the educational outcome for such children depends on the facilitation provided by a teacher aide. To locate the role of teacher aide in New Zealand in 1998, it was necessary to investigate the historical, educational, economic and social elements that led to the employment of teacher aides and their changing roles. These changes encompass both internal (New Zealand) and external (global) influences. There has been little analysis on the role of New Zealand teacher aides. This thesis seeks to contribute information of the specific role New Zealand teacher aides perform and indicate areas where further research could be profitable. Item Open AccessMissionaries of empire : 1905 All Black tour(1981) Buchanan, Timothy Neville WilliamThe 1905 All Blacks were the first national rugby side to visit the Motherland. As such, they have attracted considerable attention from sports writers. Rather more one might argue than the ‘Invincibles' who were to make the trip Home in 1924-5. Unlike the latter, the 1905 team did lose. It might, in fact, be argued that it was this loss which more than anything else enshrined the team in rugby folklore. The Deans 'try' ensured that rugby buffs sipping their pints after a sunless afternoon at the park would play and replay the game as the years went on. That a New Zealand television channel could recently re-enact the try is adequate testimony of the place of the tour in popular rugby mythology. The tour, however was more than a purely rugby affair. Sport, even in 1905, was too important a matter to be left solely to the sportsman. King Dick Seddon like the old electoral warhorse that he was, sniffed votes in support for the rugby tourists. As the tour grew and victory followed victory, the New Zealand premier, became more and more willing to use the team for his own political ends. To Seddon, the rugby players presented a golden opportunity to parade the virtues of colonial life before the mother country. No longer need New Zealand cringe like an adolescent child before the Home Country. The colonials could stand on their own two feet. It was, indeed, the mother country which needed to look to its laurels. The 1905 All Blacks could, in short, be used as a focal point for the kind of national fervour which Seddon wanted to promote. It was a nationalism moderated by the apparently contradictory expression of support for the imperial connection. The All Blacks, in Seddon's view, were a reminder to the Home Country of what the Empire could achieve by joint endeavour. The rugby tourists were to be 'missionaries of 'Empire'. They were to encourage the Mother country to a proper appreciation of the role yet to be played by the Empire in shaping the destiny of the world. It is primarily at these issues which this essay directs its attention. Item Open AccessPower and local networks in Northeast Thailand after the 2006 military coup.(2023) Meechan, SuthikarnThis study examines the transformation of power in Thai politics, including how power has been produced and utilised by local-level networks in the Northeast region since the 2006 military coup. Considering uncertain regimes and complex circumstances necessitating networked collaboration, a single political actor or network cannot work alone. The central concern of the thesis is to examine the nature of local-level networks, as well as to assess how such networks operate under the contexts of political conflict and military rule. A framework is proposed to understand the ‘Thai local-level clientelistic cluster network’ and to further clarify how local-level networks function. It theorises a complex model of membership and connection controlled by clusters of brokers, clans, and machines. According to a qualitative research methodology, this study mainly employs using a documentary survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Data collection in the Northeast region was concentrated on various aspects to describe the operations of networks with different modes of operation. These aspects include the colour-coded conflict between the Yellow Shirt and Red Shirt movements, budgetary politics and other policies in local-level government, and electoral competition. The research reveals that the nature of local-level networks is influenced by national politics, which is shaped by regime change and institutional dynamics resulting from the 2006 and 2014 coups. In a clientelistic cluster network, these conditions also affect the resources that the network requires and the interactions both between members and among the three clusters. This study argues that new forms of local-level networks, which replaced traditional patron-client ties, are instigated by the motivational factors of decentralisation. Local-level networks also are enabled by economic expansion; the growth of new technology, which has led to a growing number of new political actors at the local level; and the new political landscape with its higher levels of competition and cooperation. In addition, the outcomes of two coups created a growing gap between political parties and local-level politicians, as well as a new structure of clientelistic relationships composed of various clients, brokers, and patrons who work together and compete for political achievements and resources. This thesis therefore argues that the nature of networks at the local level can be existed by both dependent and independent of other clusters of local clientelistic networks and national powers such as political parties and the government. Under partially democratic political conditions with supra-constitutional controls, local-level powers can not only maintain, but also expand, their influence through the utilisation of clientelistic cluster networks in which each cluster assumes a different leadership role for different functions. As such, the survival of local-level powers depends on their capacity to adapt and incorporate themselves into a network, thereby ensuring their continued existence and enabling them to expand their influence. Item Open AccessA critical analysis of South African mental health law : a selection of human rights and criminal justice issues(2016) Spamers MThis thesis is concerned with determining whether South African mental health law and its application in practice is in need of reform. In order to reach its objectives, the thesis measures mental health legislation and criminal law that affect the mentally ill individual or offender against international and local human rights standards, and generally accepted principles and scientific principles applicable in the mental health profession. Particular focus is placed on the admission of a mentally ill person as a voluntary, assisted or involuntary mental health care user, State Patient or mentally disordered prisoner in terms of the Mental Health Care Act 17 of 2002 (‘MHCA’), as well a critical review of the MHCA forms used to translate the Act’s provisions into practice. The thesis critically discusses the regulation of mental health care practitioners in terms of the Health Professions Act 56 of 1974, including psychology and psychiatry and the expert witness, and the new Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 and its regulations. An outline of the role of the National Health Act 61 of 2003 in the administration of the health system is provided.The thesis analyses the manners in which mental health affects criminal liability, and Chapter 13 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977. Finally a desktop study into the current state of mental health care provision and the implementation of legislation in practice is conducted, followed by conclusions and recommendations for reform to legislation, policy, and the MHCA forms where anomalies have been identified. Item Open AccessThe Emperor of the Romans in late-medieval Italian thought, c. 1250-1347(2023) Rolston, ElisabethHistorians’ understanding of the role of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Emperor Frederick II in 1250 has been shaped traditionally by an assumption of decline in both the real authority and ideological significance of the empire. More recently, sources beyond the established ‘canon’ of political texts have challenged these dominant narratives. Revisionist approaches to texts that were held up previously as early examples of ‘modern’ thought have further shown that the imperial idea remained robust in the later Middle Ages. This thesis builds on that foundation. It demonstrates that the idea of the emperor in the century following the death of Frederick II was not simply a remnant of an older worldview. Rather, it was dynamic and responsive to contemporary needs and circumstances. Drawing on a range of perspectives from northern and central Italy, this thesis contributes to the under-researched area of the role of emperor and empire in this region and highlights the impact of the political, social and religious environments of the Italian cities on perceptions of the emperor. It further departs from existing studies in this area by focusing primarily on the figure of the emperor himself rather than the broader concept of empire. It examines how models of ideal rulership were constructed, and utilises approaches from the emerging fields of masculinity studies and the history of emotions to explore depictions of historical and contemporary emperors. This thesis shows that late-medieval Italian writers, who were primarily concerned with the establishment and maintenance of peace, expressed an understanding of the emperor as either a potential saviour or a scapegoat for war during an extended period of discord and violence. Late-medieval Italy was home to a distinct imperial ideal shaped primarily by the need for peace, harmony and stability in the region. Item Open AccessMicronutrients and Traumatic Brain Injury in children : six case studies investigating safety and feasibility.(2023) Waretini, SophieTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI is the leading cause of death and long-term disability in children and young adults around the world. For those who survive, there is no guarantee of making a full recovery. TBI presents a multiple and varied issues as a result of micro-injuries sustained during the impact. In an effort to protect and repair itself against the ensuing inflammation, the brain goes through a series of neurometabolic steps. Over a substantial period of time, these efforts can lead to further deterioration. Children affected by TBI present an array of behavioural issues, emotional dysregulation, in some cases, anxiety, ADHD, depression, and disruptions in executive functioning. Pharmaceutical treatments for these conditions have been found to carry some serious side effects and little effectiveness. Research is increasingly looking at the role of nutrition and its impact on mental health conditions. This study investigated a specific broad-spectrum micronutrient formula, Daily Essential Nutrients, a clinical-strength broad-spectrum micronutrient formula, and its safety on children who have been affected by TBI. Six children between the ages of 8- and 11-year-old were recruited who reported emotional dysfunction as a result of a TBI were recruited in the study. Following baseline measures, the open label trial of DEN started. Outcome measures assessing irritability, aggression, anxiety, executive functioning, and ADHD were taken monthly. At the end of the treatment, participants had a three-month washout period before a follow up was conducted. Unfortunately, only three of the six participants were able to be contacted at that time. Three participants showed some improvements in measures related to anxiety and aggression. Behavioural regulation also showed improvement. Reported side effects were found to be mild and transient. Although, one participant dropped out due to a skin rash that appeared to be linked to the DEN. This study demonstrated the safety of a micronutrient intervention as treatment option for children with emotional dysfunction as a result of a TBI. Further research with stronger designs is needed to determine DEN’s efficacy on children who have suffered TBI. Item Open AccessAudience design and language performance in New Zealand police shows.(2023) McHugh-Warnock, McKenzieThis thesis investigates the monophthong production of New Zealand police officers, both real and fictional, when addressing different audiences within the context of an observationa l documentary television show. In viewing the reality show Motorway Patrol, depicting the work of the New Zealand Police as they work on Auckland’s motorways, two central language activities emerge–talking to the public and directing speech towards the camera. The information relayed in each activity is similar, pertaining to the consequences of the actions undertaken by those involved in an incident, it is instead the audience that distinguishes the two activities. When talking to the public, a police officer is interacting with people who are both visible to them and able to communicate their level of understanding due to their presence at the site of an incident. This allows an officer to tailor their language use to the individual in front of them. When directing speech towards the camera, however, a police officer is providing information to the audience of the television show who are both unseen and unable to communicate their level of understanding. This tasks the officer with being intelligible to a wide and varied group of people, that does not allow for person-specific language use. These two activities are characteristic of a genre, being shared by a plethora of police-centred reality shows existing both in New Zealand and internationally. The notoriety of this genre led to the creation of Wellington Paranormal, a fictional show utilising deadpan comedy to parody the reality shows that follow the New Zealand Police. As part of this imitation, the two language activities of talking to the public and directing speech towards the camera are replicated throughout the series. The existence of these two language activities allows for an investigation into the potential style shifting undertaken by police officers as they switch from resolving an issue in person to presenting information to an unknown audience. The existence of these two television shows allows for investigation into the nature of language performance and if the imitation of a language variety is able to replicate the way in which a target of imitation changes their language use to suit their context. In this investigation, a corpus was created using thirty episodes of Motorway Patrol and six episodes of Wellington Paranormal. The F1 and F2 of monophthongs produced by twelve different police officers, ten real and two fictional, were analysed. Linear regression modelling was used to assess whether the production of a vowel formant by a particular speaker was significantly different when talking to the public compared to when they were directing their speech towards the camera. Using versions of the dataset that had not been normalised and that had been normalised by speaker, it was discovered that there is an overall difference in vowel space between activities–every monophthong was produced in a relatively lowered and fronted position when talking to the public among speakers of Motorway Patrol, with only a lowered position being found in this activity among speakers of Wellington Paranormal. This finding prompted the use of a third version of the dataset that had been normalised by activity within speaker. Undertaking this novel step allowed for difference in individual vowel placement that is greater than what is accounted for in the overall difference between activities to become visible. With this, it was found that the real police officers of Motorway Patrol produced differences in individual vowels alongside the overall differences in the vowel space. While the intentions behind differences have been speculated in this thesis, it can be said that the real police officers differ in their production of monophthongs between activities and that actors imitating real officers are able to capture this difference to a certain extent. Ultimately, the findings of this study mark the beginnings of characterising the linguistic styles found in police-centred observational documentary shows along with speaking to the potential for language performers to change their production of linguistic variables dependent on their context in a manner that is similar to speakers of their target variety. What’s more, the discovery of individual vowel differences through use of a dataset that had been normalised by activity within speaker, advocates for the use of new data treatment methods in the field of sociophonetics. Item Open AccessTracing the rise of Chinese New Zealand artists : Guy Ngan, Denise Kum, Yuk King Tan.(2005) Lee, Jung EunSince the 1860s, the Chinese have been the largest non-European and non-Polynesian group of immigrants to New Zealand. It was only in the 1940s that the first artist of Chinese descent, Guy Ngan, came to the forefront of art in New Zealand. Furthermore, it was another fifty years before the next two artists of Chinese decent, Denise Kum and Yuk King Tan, emerged as leading New Zealand artists. The reason for this late rise of recognized artists is twofold: the internal culture and mindset of the sojourner, and secondly the external discrimination that these Chinese experienced in New Zealand. Thus, traditions from which the Chinese immigrants came from and the socio-political climate of New Zealand must be explored. A greater awareness of the background and contexts within which they emerged provides one with a heightened appreciation of the achievement of these artists. The chosen artists are significant, not only because they are pioneers of New Zealand Chinese art, but also because their desire to seek new challenges propelled them to the forefront of contemporary New Zealand art. Item Open AccessThe role of community newspapers in information dissemination : a study of two Christchurch community newspapers(1996) Nafiz, Ahmed ZakiThis study achieves four objectives: identifies the role of community newspapers in the society ; provides an historical background to Christchurch’ s community news journalism; records the community newspapers in operation in the city; and analyses the news and information content in two selected papers to determine the extent to which they carry out their information dissemination role. The two papers selected for this analysis were The Mail and the Christchurch Star. In analysing their news and information content, the study examines the style of news presentation, the nature of news dissemination as well as the general structure of the news items. The study reveals there is inadequate coverage given to major news areas. For example, in case of Christchurch1, less than 20% of the papers' editorial space was given to areas such as health, local government, education, local economy. On the other hand, about 50% of the editorial content was focused on business, sports and subjects such as arts, entertainment, culture, fashion, gardening etc. It was also apparent from the study that although Christchurch city was the major focus of interest, there was inadequate coverage given to city's satellite towns which are considered to be part of their community of interest. Item Open AccessUncertain dissent : Roman Catholics and their schools in the Diocese of Christchurch, 1958-1974(1975) O'Reilly, Kevin AnthonyIn the affairs of the Roman Catholic Schools of the Christchurch Diocese, during the years 1958-1974, a series of changes took place which were designed to protect the existence of those schools and overcome financial and staffing shortages. It was generally considered by those who directed the schools in that period, that the difficulties which gave rise to new policies regarding Roman Catholic Schools, were no different in character than those experienced in the past. But a closer inspection of the events which led to the new policies which were adopted for Roman Catholic Schools in Christchurch indicates that they signalled a more fundamental transition. Although this transition became evident through decisions taken in the Diocese of Christchurch, nevertheless, widespread reaction elsewhere in New Zealand, and similar adjustments in the educational policies of the other Roman Catholic dioceses, show that the transition was taking place in New Zealand Roman Catholicism as a whole. In this transition, the sect-like characteristics which New Zealand' Roman Catholicism had acquired, were being replaced with those more typical of a 'Church'. Item Open AccessNon-verbal learning disorder : a global and Aotearoa New Zealand context.(2023) Conway, ClaudiaNon-Verbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which affects skills associated with the right hemisphere of the brain, such as visuospatial recall and processing. NLD can affect learning and social development; however, supportive learning and social strategies have not been explored within an Aotearoa New Zealand context. This exploratory study included two online surveys conducted in a phase-like manner to identify supportive strategies for NLD and the frequency in which these strategies are used by professionals in Aotearoa New Zealand schools. Survey one identified learning and social strategies that people with NLD and family members of people with NLD view as supportive within a primary school context (years 0 to 8, ages 5 to 12). Participants included an international sample of 58 people who either had NLD or were family members of people with NLD. All learning and social strategies were rated above average for level of support, and responses to open-ended questions provided insight into additional supportive strategies for NLD. Responses to survey one informed the contents of survey two. Survey two identified the frequency with which professionals provide supportive strategies for NLD in Aotearoa New Zealand schools. Participants included 113 teachers, learning assistants and social/support workers currently working in Aotearoa New Zealand schools with students in years 0 to 8. Although the majority of participants (51.46%) were not familiar with NLD, most of the learning and social strategies considered supportive for NLD were rated above average for frequency of use. The results from this thesis suggested that supportive learning and social strategies for NLD were used by teaching professionals in Aotearoa New Zealand schools, despite a lack of awareness around NLD, and NLD not being included in any formal diagnostic instruments.