Arts: Theses and Dissertations

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  • ItemOpen Access
    ‘Akarongo, ‘Āpi‘i, Arataki Listen, Learn, Lead. Exploring the lived experiences and perspectives of Pacific peoples within climate change spaces : an Aotearoa context.
    (2023) Timoteo, MahMah
    Complex, nuanced, and devastating, the impacts of climate change are being felt on levels never experienced before in human history. Whilst many parts of the world are slowly, yet painfully becoming more exposed and familiar to the harmful and ever more destructive realities of the climate crisis, Pacific peoples and their communities have continued to be at the forefront of this global issue. Although much research has investigated the impact of climate change on Pacific Island nations, there is a lack of research that considers the multifaceted and intersectional lived experiences and voices of Pacific peoples and their navigation of the climate emergency, specifically within climate change spaces throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. This research aimed to explore the lived experiences of Pacific peoples in climate spaces within Aotearoa New Zealand and sought to identify the challenges Pacific peoples face whilst navigating these spaces. In doing so, this research sought to address such challenges by suggesting potential ways forward that can be implemented to aid the amplification and safety of Pacific peoples and their communities. An intersectional postcolonial approach was employed which provided a lens in which systemic and institutional oppression, marginalisation, and discrimination could be identified and understood. It is through the analysis of power dynamics and roles within climate spaces and discussions that we revealed the significance of decentring whiteness, dismantling of Eurocentrism, and colonial domination within such climate spaces. The following research involved ten Pacific participants throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. Guiding the research was the implementation of the Cook Island ‘Tivaevae Methodology’. The ‘akaruru (data collection) method carried out was an interweaving of semi-structured interviews, participant-observations, and talanoa. Stitched throughout the key stages of Tivaevae were five core values of the tivaevae model: taokotai (collaboration), tu akangateitei (respect), uriuri kite (reciprocity), tu inangaro (relationships), and akairi kite (shared vision). These values laid the foundation for how this research was carried out, centering the prosperity and wellbeing of those involved in this research and nurturing the vā between us. The key findings indicated that Pacific peoples and their community’s experiences of climate change spaces and discussions within Aotearoa New Zealand are dynamic, multifaceted, and complex. The talanoa sessions revealed that some Pacific peoples face various forms of discrimination and challenges within these spaces, with varying degrees of hardships brought about by oppressive systems and institutions upheld within Aotearoa New Zealand, which in turn negatively impacts their current livelihoods and futures. Informed by the lived experiences and perspectives shared by the participants involved, this research emphasises the imperative need for Pacific voices to be centred and amplified within climate change spaces and discussion. Furthermore, possible ways forward involve the decolonisation and indigenisation of systems and institutions that directly influence and impact climate spaces and beyond. Ways forward must be led by Pacific people and their communities to ensure the protection of their mana, safety, and future generations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Making sense of Jane’s life and experiences as a woman farmer: the transformation of gender in agriculture
    (2024) Mason-Sievers, Joanne
    The farming industry in Aotearoa New Zealand has been predominantly patriarchal and women have traditionally played a support role to their farming husbands. Therefore, women have struggled to be recognised in their own right as farmers and is this still the case in 2023 to a considerable extent. In order to discover what changes are occurring for women in farming and what continuities there are, I collected a life history/story by a women farmer Jane, who owns and runs a large dairy farm in Southland, as the sole farmer. This story of her life outlines the farming capital she gained over many years of farming in fields of masculine domination. During the 35 years Jane has been farming many obstacles had to be overcome allowing her to firmly establish herself as a successful woman farmer today. Janes life history demonstrates some changes to the gender order of farming and these changes are highlighted in the narrative of Janes life. Key events in Jane’s life include surviving the death of her husband, becoming the sole farmer, managing public scrutiny, overcoming mental health issues, interacting with farming professionals, managing a biological disaster, navigating family dynamics, planning for farming succession, and finally succeeding as a farmer in the male dominated industry of farming. Jane’s story shines light on what was traditionally a patriarchal farming industry and how women are disrupting the gender order in farming today. However, there do appear to still be barriers in place for women to succeed in their own right and they are discussed throughout the life story, highlighting that not everything is changing for women in the farming sector and there is still some work to do around gender bias and the dominant discourse of patriarchal farming. Drawing on the work of Bourdieu, I argue that Jane’s habitus is informed by the social spaces/fields she finds herself positioned in throughout her life. Additionally, the farming capitals she has gained over many years has shaped her experiences and perceived capabilities as a woman farmer.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Feminine identity in New Zealand : the Girl Peace Scout movement 1908-1925
    (2000) McCurdy, Diana
    This is a study of feminine identity in early twentieth-century New Zealand through the life and work of Lieutenant-Colonel David Cossgrove (1852 - 1920). In 1908, Cossgrove established Peace Scouting, New Zealand's first adult-sponsored youth movement for girls. Peace Scouting was a character-training scheme that Cossgrove adapted directly from Robert Baden-Powell's Boy Scout movement. He developed and organised it independently from Girl Guiding, which was Britain's official "feminised" adaptation of Scouting. For most of the movement's 17 years, Cossgrove acted as Peace Scouting's figurehead, and was the central source of its unique identity. Unlike the Guide movement, which constructed femininity within the broad western ideals of population ideology, the Peace Scout movement appealed to a distinctly New Zealand construction of femininity. It brought into the same pioneering ideology that historians have identified as a foundation of New Zealand's masculine identity. In doing so, the scheme assumed a more equal, connatural relationship between male and female than that accepted in traditional western ideology. Despite the imperial origins of its activities, the Peace Scout scheme identified New Zealand's physical and ideological indigenes - whether physical or ideological - not just as a source of difference, but as a sign of unique ideology that should be celebrated. As such, it provides a site of complex interplay between nationalism, colonialism and imperialism in the construction of New Zealand femininity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Rape and beyond : women empowering women
    (1995) Rathgen, Elizabeth
    The issue of rape was brought into the public arena by the women's movement in the 1960s. Radical feminists, in particular, explored the political nature of sexual relations of which rape is an outcome. The notion of women's inferiority and their exclusion from the public arena has been constituted by a patriarchal social order which supports the interests of men. Feminist poststructuralism examines the historical and social context of patriarchal discourses which perpetuate notions of male dominance and control. This study, Rape and Beyond: Women Empowering Women, explores rape from the perspective of women for whom rape constitutes an injury. This viewpoint is in contrast to that of the male perspective which categorises rape as a crime. Throughout the study, the tension between these two positions continues to be highlighted. Traditional stereotypes associated with rape, present conflicting images of women as both passive and vulnerable, and yet at the same time, ultimately culpable. Despite the fact that rape is perpetuated by men, women are often blamed and their innocence is thus disputed. The propensity for victim-blaming is reflected in the responses made to women who have been raped by social institutions, such as the legal system, medicine, religion, and the family. This approach exacerbates rather than ameliorates the injury rape inflicts on women. These issues are the focus of the empirical component of the study. Interviews conducted with six women who have had personal experiences of rape, and who are also involved in rape crisis service organisations, provide the data which are explored through the processes of both content and discourse analysis. The· analysis of the women's narratives draws on the French school of psychoanalysis which attends to the connection between language and the unconscious. The content of the women's narratives reveals several themes, including the losses the women have experienced as a result of rape, and the strategies they have devised to resolve their trauma. Analysis of the narratives articulated by the women, in accordance with feminist poststructuralism, reveals the underlying discourses, in particular those disseminated by patriarchy, that have affected the ability of the women both to understand the meaning of their experiences, and to reintegrate a sense of subjectivity in the aftermath of rape. The ability of the women to resist the domination of patriarchal discourses, and to employ various means to empower themselves and others is also highlighted. This, I argue, makes visible the strength of women as they continue to wage the battle against male sexual violence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Attitudes towards the Treaty of Waitangi: the effects of education, age and political party affiliation
    (1996) Ashton, Elizabeth
    The intention of this thesis is to determine the effects of education, age and political party affiliation on attitudes towards the Treaty of Waitangi and Maori 'special rights', and possible reasons for these effects. Following an analysis of past studies it was hypothesised that those with a higher level of education were more likely to support the Treaty of Waitangi and Maori special rights, that younger people were likely to be more supportive of the issues than older people and that National Party supporters would be less supportive than those who affiliate themselves with the Labour Party or the Alliance Party. A survey was undertaken to this end. This took the form of a questionnaire which was posted to Christchurch residents whose names had been taken randomly from the local electoral roll. A statistical analysis of the returned questionnaires revealed that attitudes towards the Treaty and Maori special rights do tend to be affected by p_eople's level of education, with stronger support found amongst those with a higher level of education. An analysis of the data according to age also revealed some statistically significant results, with younger people being more inclined to support both the Treaty and Maori special rights. The political party affiliation of respondents also appeared to affect the way these respondents felt about the issues, with National Party supporters showing less support for the Treaty and Maori special rights than Labour Party and Alliance Party supporters. Theories of representative democracy and both the ideal and the actual influence of the public on government policies are discussed. Past analyses of New Zealanders' attitudes towards the Treaty are also examined, and are compared with an earlier chapter which briefly outlines the ways in which the government and various Maori groups have reacted to the Treaty of Waitangi since it was signed. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the results, and suggests that the government would do well to develop an educative role to increase public awareness and support for its race policies.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Women on the walls : representations of female saints and biblical figures in English wall paintings, 1100-1400.
    (2020) Comeau, Jane
    Paintings on the walls of English medieval churches were a vital aspect of conveying religious thought to a diverse and often uneducated audience. Representations of women within these paintings were carefully tailored to convey certain messages to their specific audiences and provide vital insight into medieval perceptions of women, both lay and saintly. This dissertation examines surviving paintings of St Margaret, St Katherine and Eve to explore how their images functioned in this uniquely public context. Wall paintings of the two female saints are compared to their depictions in the circulating hagiographical literature. Although they faithfully represent the narratives found there, violence and drama is overemphasised, in order to discourage laywomen from identifying too strongly with these figures of transgression. There are far fewer surviving paintings of Eve, and so this dissertation presents case studies of these scant remains, including a series of twelfth-century images found at St Botolph’s church in Hardham. Competing medieval ideas of Eve’s sinfulness are found to be reflected in these paintings. Additionally, their positioning within the various churches in which they appear offer important insights into how the image of Eve was employed to reinforce theological lessons, provide guidance and function as a symbol. This dissertation concludes that representations of women in wall paintings were complex and often contradictory, but that they were uniquely shaped by their role in the public sphere of medieval life. Women in wall paintings functioned not necessarily as moral figures presenting a cautionary tale or lessons on how to live, but as tools of the Church and the societal elite.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ko wai mātou? : recording Ngāi Tahutanga in Mantell’s Census.
    (2020) Gibbs, Eleni
    Whakapapa is who Ngāi Tahu are. This dissertation problematic nature of recording of Ngāi Tahu identity and whakapapa through the first colonial attempt to do so Mantell’s census of 1848 and 1853. The nature of recording and the historical record has failed to adequately represent my ancestor, Mereana Teitei Haberfield and her whānau, in the way that they and their Ngāi Tahu community saw them at the time, to the extent that three of her children were erased from the record. The conflicting knowledge systems and understandings of what it means to be Ngāi Tahu at play within Mantell’s census went on to permeate throughout the processes that define Ngāi Tahu identity following the establishment of the Native Land Court as the authority for Ngāi Tahu whakapapa whilst working alongside the Ngaitahu Claims Committee in 1925. The tensions between the legal record and Ngāi Tahu lore that began with the recording of Mantell’s Census in the mid-nineteenth century continue on today as we consider Ngāi Tahutanga within the context of rangatiratanga in the post-settlement era.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A history of New Zealand’s Scandinavian and German migrants from the 1874 Gutenberg voyage.
    (2020) Church, Joanna
    Past literature has previously neglected to focus on and analyse New Zealand’s Scandinavian and German colonial migrants who settled in Canterbury and other regions of New Zealand outside Norsewood and 70 Mile Bush. This dissertation aims to fill this historiographical gap by examining the lives and cultural practices of the migrants who emigrated on the ship Gutenberg, which brought migrants to Lyttelton in 1874. The decision of the Central Government to bring non-British migrants to the colony and the push and pull factors which encouraged the passengers to migrate are explored, while the inclusion of migrant biographies illuminates the personal side to their stories. Secondary sources are used to show the wider context of late nineteenth century New Zealand. The selected primary sources, including newspapers and parliamentary debates, demonstrate the feelings of New Zealand society toward the presence of Danes, Swedes and Germans, and also provide valuable biographical information. The dissertation finds that the passengers often remained in Canterbury, working as farm labourers or completing projects under treasurer Julius Vogel’s Public Works Scheme. While this represented the majority, a select few, such as poet and librarian Johannes Andersen, managed to pursue more academic careers in cities. The migrants quickly adapted to speaking English, and some even went as far as anglicizing their names to fit into the dominant colonial society, but their religious practices, including Danish and German language church services, remained a strong part of their identity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Signs of the sacred? Pilgrim badges and popular religion in England, 1340- 1450.
    (2020) Martinka, Rebeka
    Pilgrim badges, or pilgrim signs, as contemporaries referred to them, were mass-produced, wearable objects made out of metal that depicted saints and their relics. They originated in the twelfth century and remained popular in England until the Reformation. The aim of this dissertation is to explore popular religion in England between 1340 and 1450 through a quantitative analysis of pilgrim badges, focusing on their ritualistic use and the way saints were represented on them. Pilgrim badges had many different functions in medieval society from being a symbol of the pilgrim’s identity to their amuletic usage for healing and protection. Although the scholarship focuses mostly on badges’ healing powers, it is necessary to consider their purpose from different perspectives and also acknowledge their role in private devotion and the commercial aspects of pilgrimage. A particularly important aspect of pilgrim signs was their ability to transmit holiness and provide miraculous cures for those who interacted with them. An examination of the water rituals connected to badges indicates that these objects blurred the boundaries between magical and religious healing. A quantitative analysis of iconographical trends on the badges of Thomas Becket and Mary of Walsingham can deepen the current understanding of the healing power of badges and their importance in pilgrimage rituals. Badges that were direct copies of other miraculous objects were thought to possess some of the power of the original. This dissertation demonstrates that the cult of saints was vital in making religion more accessible for the non-elites who were more concerned with the practical efficacy of rituals and objects than the theory behind them. 3
  • ItemOpen Access
    To protect, to detest, to reflect : animal representation in 1930s forest and bird.
    (2020) Everingham, Elizabeth
    This thesis aims to contribute to New Zealand’s environmental history by examining the New Zealand Native Bird Protection Society’s magazine Forest and Bird and its representations of animals in the 1930s. The current historiography of the society, known today as Forest and Bird, is relatively limited. This thesis aims to broaden the historiography by focusing specifically on how contributors used different techniques in their treatment of different animals. It responds to the invitation to join in the conversation of human and animal relations in New Zealand, put forward by Annie Potts in A New Zealand Book of Beasts: Animals in our Culture, History and Everyday Life. Separated into three chapters, the thesis analyses representations of New Zealand’s native birds, introduced or ‘pest’ species, and the role of humans. Chapter One identifies the use of exoticism to encourage protection of New Zealand’s wonderful, unique, and beautiful birds. Protection is further encouraged through the metaphors of friendship and citizenship. Chapter Two moves the conversation to introduced species, and argues that the Native Bird Protection Society and its contributing writers actively utilised language of disgust, destruction and the metaphor of the enemy to encourage action against these animals. Finally, Chapter Three examines the role humans had to play in this context, arguing that the same processes of categorising are evident in representations of humans of the past, present and future in Forest and Bird. The thesis demonstrates the categories used for depicting humans and animals are dependent upon context and often contradictory.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A weapon of legitimacy : the Anglo-French dual monarchy during the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV.
    (2020) Pratt, Cameron
    This dissertation is about the Anglo-French dual monarchy during the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV. It seeks to understand what the dual monarchy meant for contemporaries. It looks at Yorkist perceptions of the dual monarchy and how they used it as a political weapon for destabilising Henry VI’s legitimacy and establishing the legitimacy of Edward IV. Dual or composite monarchies in the late medieval period have not been widely explored. Only recently have historians sought to understand these political concepts as they continue to be relevant today. This dissertation explores Yorkist perceptions of the Anglo-French dual monarchy by using chronicle sources. These are sources that historians of political thought have traditionally neglected, but which are now beginning to be considered. This study follows this new trajectory. The dual monarchy was a significant political concept in the fifteenth century. It was an established system of government and contemporaries understood how it should function. The Yorkists used the dual monarchy to delegitimise Henry VI by emphasising the failure of Henry’s advisors to manage it. The Yorkists also used a claim to the dual monarchy to reinforce their hereditary right to the throne which was a key means of legitimation in the later Middle Ages.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A case study of Ngāi Tahu and early European intermarriage on Banks Peninsula : reinstating the female narrative.
    (2023) Hampton, Georgia
    This research paper is a study of the cross-cultural marriages that occurred between Ngāi Tahu and early European settlers on Horomaka (Banks Peninsula) during the nineteenth century. Māori wāhine (women) were at the very heart of these interactions, intermarrying with the European men. The significant influence of wāhine in these relationships has, however, been undermined by the historiographical accounts of early-missionaries and ethnographers who sought to enforce their own colonial gendered practices upon these women. The paper, focuses on the perspective of the Ngāi Tahu wāhine and reflects on their lives and experiences in these marriages. I weave the stories of my own whakapapa (genealogies) into this project, centring on the intermarriage of my tipuna wahine (female ancestor), Hare Tiki, to American whaler and early Okains Bay settler, Seth Howland. The objective is to reinstate the female narrative, and in doing so, restore the dignity and agency of these wāhine who have long been labelled passive observers of this formative period in New Zealand colonial history.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring sinophone liminality : the ghost narrative of contemporary fiction in Chinese and its new perspectives.
    (2024) Chao, Di-kai
    This thesis employs a Sinophone literature perspective to examine ghost narratives in ten Chinese-language novels published since 2010, originating from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and the Chinese mainland. It highlights liminality as a point of intersection between these narratives, prompting reflections on the significance of Sinophone Studies in the context of literature and cultural studies. This thesis argues that Taiwanese ghost narratives strategically utilize the anachronistic nature of ghosts and incorporate various cultural symbols to engage in “worlding,” aiming to articulate “Taiwaneseness” amidst multiple layers of colonization. Hong Kong ghost narratives, on the other hand, re-examine the contemporary significance of disappearance discourse, prompting reflections on Hong Kong’s in-betweenness amidst recent social turmoil. Malaysian Chinese ghost narratives, adopting a “post-Chineseness” perspective, contemplate the identity construction of local Chinese within a transnational framework. Meanwhile, mainland Chinese ghost narratives, through “fabulation,” interrogate the essence of history and reality, continually reshaping the contemporary significance of China/the Central Plains. By meticulously analyzing the novels under discussion, this study reveals that ghosts in these ten texts not only embody anachronism, différance, and in-betweenness but also unveil the connotations of liminality. The liminality depicted in these texts resonate with Sinophone communities worldwide as they navigate the complexities of negotiating between Chineseness and localness, serving as active bases for the construction or expression of various Chinese identities. The inspiration derived from this active agency for researchers lies in realizing that the essence of Sinophone does not reside in binary judgments of belonging or non-belonging but rather in an epistemological innovation. Diverging from the approach that views Sinophone as a category excluding literature from the Chinese mainland, this thesis embraces Sinophone as a method to explore the diversity, fluidity, and complexities inherent within the Sinosphere. It seeks to unveil the richness obscured by the oversimplification of the term “Chinese” in Western discourse, which often imposes violent categorizations, thus neglecting the nuanced realities of cultural production and expression.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The posthuman beauty myth.
    (2023) Pawlowski, Magdalena Diowanna
    In this thesis I explore the beauty myth in past and, predominantly, contemporary SF. I begin the thesis by defining the beauty myth, drawing on Naomi Wolf’s The Beauty Myth and Judith Butler’s Bodies That Matter. Wolf convincingly argues that the beauty myth pervades all areas of women’s lives, extending to their reproductive organs. This thesis will then emphasize the entrenched nature of the beauty myth throughout human history, beginning with the young and pure Virgin Mary protagonist, through to more modern heroines such as Octavia Butler’s Lilith. I use various theoretical lenses to understand how and why the beauty myth survives in some SF literature, and in what ways other SF works to deconstruct this gender paradigm. Besides Naomi Wolf’s analysis and Judith Butler’s performativity theory, these lenses include exoticism, the Other/subaltern native, Judith Butler’s performativity theory, Toril Moi’s Kristeva-inspired liminality theory, Foucault’s analysis of power, Rosi Braidotti’s posthumanism, Julia Kristeva’s theory of signification and her theory of the abject, Suvin’s cognitive estrangement, and an examination of gaming and anime culture. Several SF works serve as my primary texts, but I examine the beauty myth in Hannu Rajanemi’s Quantum Thief trilogy, Kim Stanley Robinson’s 2312 and Galileo’s Dream, Ursula Le Guin’s Left Hand of Darkness, and Octavia Butler’s Xenogenesis in most detail. The contrast between the treatment of the beauty myth by the first pair of authors and the second is startling, with the former dressing the beauty myth in futuristic garb while Le Guin and Butler re-imagine not only new worlds but also new ways of being. Unexpectedly, these new ways of being are made possible, in Butler’s trilogy at least, by the womb—the protagonist gives birth to an unforeseen and unfathomable new species, thereby rewriting the beauty myth’s hold over the protagonist and the next generation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Becoming ‘Nestorian crosses’: a study of the collecting of the bronze Ordos crosses, their iconography, and materiality.
    (2023) Sutherland, Alexander L.
    ‘Becoming ‘Nestorian Crosses’: A Study of the Collecting of the Bronze Ordos Crosses, Their Iconography and Materiality’ is a new analysis of the bronzes commonly known as ‘Nestorian Crosses’ as coined by Anglican missionary P. M. Scott in 1930. This analysis builds upon recent criticism of Scott and other early scholars and collectors’ identification of the bronzes discovered in the region of Baotou, Inner Mongolia with the Yuan-dynasty yelikewen Christians. By examining the process of how the ‘Nestorian crosses’ became ‘Nestorian’, this thesis recontextualises them within the framework of Chinese art collecting in the twentieth century. In particular, it discusses this process in relation to the creation of the concept, ‘Chinese art’ as argued by Craig Clunas, contextualising the ‘Nestorian crosses’ within the imperialistic and colonial art collecting practices of European and North American art collectors in China. An analysis of early scholarship and correspondence on the crosses reveals that this process was informed by the particular cultural perspectives and biases of scholars and amateur collectors. Drawing on this critique, the thesis presents alternative iconographic readings of the bronzes, highlighting possible, Chinese, Mongolian, and Buddhist sources for their symbolism. Finally, the thesis proposes a greater focus on the materiality of the ‘Nestorian crosses’, by utilising Arjun Appadurai’s ‘social life of things’ in a shift away from purely symbolic analysis. Finally, a spectroscopic analysis of a ‘Nestorian cross’ from the Rewi Alley Collection highlights new avenues for this topic from a material culture studies perspective.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Abraham Lincoln from Clay to Jefferson : the evolution of his political rhetoric, 1837-1860.
    (2023) Smith, Joshua
    As president, Abraham Lincoln delivered two of the most famous addresses in American history. This thesis explores the political rhetoric of Abraham Lincoln before the Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural, in the pre-presidential years from 1837 to 1860. It explores Lincoln’s highly significant and imaginative use of his two political touchstones Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson. Knowing how Americans recognized these two famous politicians, Lincoln made reference in multiple public forums to Clay and Jefferson, especially concerning slavery and the political controversy around the spread of slavery in the 1850s. Lincoln is one of most researched figures in American history and for decades historians have published on virtually every aspect of his political career. Remarkably, the evolution of the Clay and Jefferson references and how Lincoln made use of them as rhetorical devices have only been hinted at by historians. Through the careful study of Lincoln’s speeches and letters it is possible to pinpoint the exact moments when Lincoln used Clay and similarly when he employed the memory of Jefferson. Lincoln’s rhetoric depended on the location of the address, such as northern or southern Illinois and the sentiments of the audience, always with the basic assumption that for the most part his auditors would think of Clay in light of his role in the 1820 Missouri Compromise and Jefferson as the author of the Declaration of Independence. Upon close examination a subtle but clear evolution in Lincoln’s rhetoric away from Clay and compromise and toward Jefferson and first principles. Two years in Lincoln’s political career highlight the arc of this evolution. Firstly .1854 and the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act obliged Lincoln to confront Southern politicians’ apparent success in enabling the extension of slavery into the western territories. Lincoln’s address at Peoria on October 16 was a turning point for him as well as the first time he used Jefferson as an antislavery touchstone alongside Clay. Peoria also established the framework for Lincoln to fight what he would soon label the Slave Power through to 1860. The second year of importance in Lincoln’s rhetorical evolution comes at the end of the decade. In 1859 Lincoln had emerged from the debates with Stephen Douglas as a politician of national prominence. In his Ohio addresses of 1859 Clay has all but vanished. Lincoln from this moment forward references Jefferson as his main touchstone in the fight against slavery. This shift to Jefferson illustrates Lincoln’s self-conscious ascent from local and Whig politician to becoming a player in national politics, someone who would seek the Republican Party nomination for president a year later. In contrast to 1854, 1859 has generally been downplayed or missed altogether as a time of importance in Lincoln’s rise to the presidency. Historians have long stressed the Great Debates of 1858 and 1860 election. Finally, at a single moment of insight, at the moment of his ascent to prominence, Lincoln shifted yet again in his use of his two great touchstones. Only at New Haven, immediately after his stunning success at Cooper Union, did Lincoln begin to see both Clay and Jefferson, as each in their own way inadequate to express American’s troubled relationship with slavery. No longer as much a time to reflect, in Lincoln’s mind the issue of slavery had grown so fraught as to beg the attention of the immediate generation and break away from the compromises of the past.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Who are we and what are we doing? : using the experiences of university educated millennial to understand contemporary neoliberal capitalism in New Zealand.
    (2023) Hodgson, Morgan
    This thesis uses the experiences of educated millennial precariats in New Zealand, those with university degrees and existing in a state of precarity, to explore the key challenges of capitalism in New Zealand. In the wake of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) and the rise of the gig-economy a new phenomena came to the attention of social scientists: the university educated precariat. This new precariat stood out as the group most affected by the failures of neoliberalism, with their degrees not guaranteeing them jobs as they had been promised, and the addition of student debt and insecure employment placing pressure on their financial security. While this phenomena has been well documented in international literature it has not yet been closely examined in New Zealand, where conditions are different to those seen overseas, including a smaller impact from the GFC, interest-free student loans, and less prevalence of the gig-economy. Through a series of interviews and associated policy analysis, this thesis uncovers that the main site of financial exploitation for the educated precariat in New Zealand is through the rental housing market, rather than the labour market as seen overseas. It uncovers themes of poor capital intensity, and perverse market incentives that encourage housing as the main form of profit speculation in New Zealand. These challenges point to a looming future of increased wealth disparity, and the extension of state subsidised capitalism. If there is seemingly no electorally viable alternative to neoliberal capitalism, how do we address these challenges and produce economic security for the future?
  • ItemUnknown
    Impact of information disorder and digital populism on journalistic practices : a study on the Brazilian press under Bolsonaro's influence.
    (2023) Grimberg, Daniela
    This thesis discusses how online disinformation and hostility against the press impacted some of the journalistic practices of mainstream news outlets in Brazil under the administration of former far-right president Jair Messias Bolsonaro (2019-2022). The period marked a decline in press freedom in the country, with news outlets and practitioners facing disinformation campaigns, threats, restricted access to government data and events, unjustified lawsuits, and attacks on and off-line. Reports produced by national and international journalism entities in the period have linked the rise of hostility against news practitioners in the country to the anti-press rhetoric and behaviours conveyed by Bolsonaro, whose communication heavily relied on social media platforms. The research sets out to understand Bolsonaro's anti-press rhetoric, amplified by his allies and groups of supporters, and its potential effects on the normative practices of journalists. It explores two sets of data. The first, Analysis Stage 1, employs thematic content analysis to describe the nature of Bolsonaro's anti-press messages on Twitter (X), adding to the scholarship on digital populism, one relevant element of information disorder. The analysis suggests that Bolsonaro's attacks on the press incorporate current global populist trends tailored to the Brazilian context. Analysis Stage 2 discusses the views of mainstream Brazilian journalists on their experiences regarding disinformation and harassment, pointing to evidence that some changes and adaptations have happened in their work practices to tackle misleading content and attacks against the press. The analysis shed light on responses required from news outlets and news practitioners concerning normative practices, such as verification, balance, and objectivity, and the consideration of security measures. Both analyses combined point to a need for transformations in news productions regarding the approach to digital populism; they also reveal that the exposure of individual journalists makes their role central to those transformations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    I am a (state)-Chinese: a comparative study of identity formation in the Chinese youth of Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan.
    (2024) Tan, Wei Kann Orson
    The identity of Chinese communities who reside outside of China has long been the focus of study, with scholars having focused on the historical struggle of these Chinese communities to develop a self-identity that removes their association with China. The rise of China has once again put the spotlight on these issues of Chinese identity; China’s increasing assertiveness and global prominence in the past decade having sparked a renewed sense of contestation around the conceptualisation of Chineseness as Beijing has begun to dictate a narrative of a singular Chinese identity. As such, this contest is no longer restricted to the simple issue of “what is Chineseness”, but rather, has expanded to include the more salient questions of “how is Chineseness constructed” and who gets to decide that. Given the large number of Chinese communities that exist in the East Asia region, this renewed contestation of Chineseness is seen as an attempt to blur the lines between Chinese nationals and foreign nationals of Chinese descent, and also to orientate the loyalty of these communities to serve Beijing’s interests. As a result of this, there has been an observable pushback from the ethnic Chinese communities, especially from the youth who claim a hybrid state-ethnic identity that rejects Beijing’s narrative. This raises the question of how such a hybrid state-ethnic identity is formed in contemporary times, and how are these identities affected by the contestation of Chineseness. This thesis aims to address these questions by providing a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of how identity formation takes place for ethnic Chinese communities outside of China by examining the experiences of identity formation of Chinese youth from Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. It is hoped that in doing so, this thesis not only addresses the questions raised, but also provides an analysis of contemporary Chinese identity formation that takes into consideration the impact that a revisionist China has on the struggle to define Chineseness, and the different environment in which these Chinese youth live in as compared to previous studies. Additionally, this thesis seeks to build an “Asian-centric” model of Chinese identity formation which recognises the uniqueness of the experiences of the various ethnic Chinese communities, thereby plugging existing gaps. In order to do so, I propose a theory for political identity formation which borrows from Social Identity Theory. I then build a theoretical framework for contemporary Chinese identity that defines the contestation of Chineseness as a duality of identities, where contemporary Chinese identity sits along a spectrum between a Chinese Political Identity and a Chinese Cultural Identity. This model incorporates existing literature to suggest factors that influence the positioning of Chinese identity along the spectrum. Thereafter, using Q methodology as the core of a mixed-method comparative research design, I analyse the influence of constructivist, symbolists, and external factors on the formation of identity for the Chinese youth from Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. In using Q-method, I am able to tell the stories of these Chinese youth by drawing out major viewpoints that reflect how the identity of these Chinese youths are affected by the nation-building policies of their respective states, the impact of their agency in choosing loyalty to their state, the influence of ethno- symbolism and class-symbolism, and also the impact of external events involving China. This thesis concludes by arguing that the data suggested that constructivist factors are the key drivers of identity formation for the Chinese youth from these states, where nation-building policies have been successful in creating a social imaginary where national identities are ranked and valued above all, and this is reinforced by the agency of these Chinese youth in “choosing” loyalty to their nations, which helps to position the hybrid state-ethnic identity of the youth towards the Chinese Cultural Identity. Furthermore, the data also suggested that external factors play an important role in helping to crystallize the position of their identity on the spectrum, as these factors contribute to a sense of contestation between nations that triggers nationalistic responses from the youth. Additionally, the thesis argues that the data seems to suggest a differing impact of symbolist factors across the four countries. It was observed that class-symbolism was a factor for identity formation in Malaysia and the Philippines, but not in Singapore and Taiwan, which was attributed to the difference in demographic size of the respective ethnic Chinese communities, and the resultant impact of class-symbolism was to draw the Chinese identity away from the Chinese Political Identity. Ethno-symbolism, on the other hand, was observed to have little influence on majority of the Chinese youth in the four countries, with only a small minority per country seemingly being influenced by it, which suggested that China’s ethno-nationalist messaging has limited influence on the positioning of the youth’s hybrid identity on the spectrum. In presenting these conclusions, I hope that this thesis has shown how a multitude of Chinese identities exists, and that these identities sit along the spectrum as a result of a combination of influences from the various factors. It also emphasises the agency of the individual in forming identity and calls into question the usage of terms like Overseas Chinese and Chinese diaspora when referring to these ethnic Chinese communities, which reinforces the sentiment of the Chinese youth to be identified first and foremost by their nationality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Victorian Oamaru: the architecture of Forrester and Lemon
    (1986) McCarthy, Cona
    Thomas Forrester had trained in Scotland as a plasterer before emigrating to Dunedin in 1861, where he was a draughtsman for the firm of Mason and Clayton. In the early 1870s Forrester moved to Oamaru, which was destined to be one of the colony's leading provincial centres. Here he became Secretary and Inspector of Works for the Oamaru Harbour Board. In 1872 he established, with pioneer businessman John Lemon, a prodigious and highly successful architectural partnership that took advantage of the influential circle of business contacts both men enjoyed through their positions on the Board. Forrester, who was chiefly responsible for the firm's architectural achievements, was a capable architect, and designed a wide variety of building types in a surprising range of styles, and produced a handful of accomplished buildings. Forrester and Lemon were far from major architects, but they did make an outstanding contribution to the architecture of their region. Their greatest achievement was the virtual creation of the Oamaru townscape during the key period of the town's growth and prosperity. In the first chapter there is a biographical account of Thomas Forrester and John Lemon, outlining their careers and varied activities, alongside a description of the development of Oamaru itself. In the second chapter the practice's commercial work is examined, in particular its importance to the development of streetscape in the town. In the third chapter public buildings, churches and schools -Forrester and Lemon's monuments to civic pride,-are assessed. In the fourth and fifth chapters their industrial and domestic architecture is discussed, and placed in its context within the work of the practice. Throughout the study the focus is on Forrester's adaptation of Victorian architectural models to meet the needs of the colonial community. Maps and photographs provide evidence of Forrester and Lemon's impact on the town, a list of buildings tabulates their work, and a list of plans documents the material surviving from the firm.