Business: Theses and Dissertations

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    Investigating the Effects of Sustainable Knowledge on Store Choice within the Fashion Sector
    (2024) Elston, Jenna Simoné
    This thesis aims to investigate the effects of sustainable knowledge on store choice within the fashion sector. More specifically, this research intends to address the following two research objectives: 1) to determine how consumers' attitudes and perceptions towards sustainability inform their store choice and what motivates them to visit certain fashion stores as opposed to others, and 2) to understand the process consumers go through when choosing a store based on their knowledge of sustainability in the fashion industry. A qualitative research approach was used, with data being collected using a two-phase approach. Firstly, protocol analysis was used, and following this, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve female participants aged between 18 and 25 years old. This was followed by a thematic analysis of the data collected to code and group the data into reoccurring themes. The study addresses a notable gap in the literature regarding how sustainable knowledge affects consumers (if at all) and the relationship that consumers have with the fashion industry. The findings presented in this research can be used to inform public policy to drive consumers sustainable knowledge, focusing on what the fashion industry does, especially considering if it is unsustainable. Seven overarching primary themes emerged from the data analysis: attitudes towards sustainability, shopping motivation, familiarity, level of knowledge about the fashion industry, environmental concern, strength characteristics and peer influence. Additionally, it was found that consumers hold substantial knowledge regarding sustainability within the fashion industry. However, sustainability is a relatively unimportant factor when shopping for fashion items. It was found that sustainability consideration is overridden by price, which was considered the most crucial aspect, and quality is closely behind. This research further shows that sustainability beliefs are prevalent among consumers but are not a key aspect that drives behaviour. This thesis contributes to an Attitude-Behaviour gap regarding the fashion sector and sustainability.
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    Airbnb consumers’ notions of responsibility and cooperation : an integrative framework of NAM and SDT.
    (2022) Zarakhsh, Shayan
    Airbnb’s negative economic, social, and environmental impacts are well acknowledged in the literature. Despite the proliferation of research attempting to understand tourists’ socio-environmentally responsible behaviours with a view to improve tourism sustainability, such endeavour is hardly evident in Airbnb research. Drawing on the triple bottom line (TBL) framework of sustainability, and an integrative theoretical framework of norm activation model (NAM) and social dilemma theory (SDT), this study seeks to understand how Airbnb consumers’ (guests) awareness of the negative economic, social-cultural, and environmental impacts of Airbnb influences their responsibility and intention to cooperate in mitigating these impacts. To this end, adopting an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, the study proposes a comprehensive conceptual model that is evaluated first using a qualitative phase, which allows for model refinement followed by a quantitative phase which tests the revised model through a national survey of Airbnb users in New Zealand. Qualitative data is collected from semi-structured interviews with 17 Airbnb consumers and thematically analysed. Quantitative data is collected from a sample of 500 Airbnb consumers and analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings suggest two potential ways in which Airbnb consumers would cooperate to mitigate the negative impacts of Airbnb: participating in activities against the use of Airbnb (i.e., use avoidance cooperation), or using Airbnb responsibly (i.e., responsible use cooperation). As for use avoidance cooperation, the results show that Airbnb consumers’ awareness of the negative impacts, ascription of responsibility, perceived efficacy in making useful contributions to solve the impacts, and expectation of other consumers’ cooperation positively and significantly affect their personal norms (a sense of responsibility/moral obligation) to cooperate, with the latter playing a significant role in predicting cooperation intention. In addition to personal norms, ascription of responsibility and product (Airbnb) preference are also directly related to cooperation intention with Airbnb preference representing the cost of, thus, a barrier to cooperation. With regard to responsible use cooperation, on the other hand, ascription of responsibility is the only factor that positively and significantly affects personal norms and personal norms is the only factor that positively and significantly influences cooperation intention. This study contributes to Airbnb literature by providing insights into how Airbnb consumers would cooperate in mitigating the negative economic and socio-environmental impacts of Airbnb, a nascent area of research. The study also contributes to this literature theoretically and methodologically through the application of an integrative framework of NAM and SDT, and a mixed-methods approach, highlighting various pathways to cooperation. Practical implications for marketing, customer experience management, Airbnb accommodation providers, Airbnb platform/company, and policy makers are also provided.
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    War and subjective wellbeing : an analysis of WWII and the Ukraine-Russia War.
    (2024) Landers, Jemesa
    War dismantles the lives of civilians across the world. The psychological effects can be expansive and the influence that these events have on life satisfaction carry across time (Kijewski, 2020) and direct impact (Veronese and Pepe, 2020). The existing literature analyses the influence of war on life satisfaction, utilizing both country-level and individual-level survey data (see Coupe and Obrizan, 2023 for a summary of this literature). In this thesis, I will contribute to this literature through a replication of the works of Kijewski (2020) and Djankov et al. (2016), who investigate the influence of WWII experience on happiness. Despite these studies using a similar methodology and a shared dataset, they come to opposing conclusions. Replication of these studies allows a comparison of their findings to explore the factors influencing the different conclusions. This thesis builds on this by using a more recent survey conducted in 2022 by the European Commission to analyze the impact of the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine on life satisfaction in Europe. This model adds a temporal and geographical dimension, revealing the indirect effects that the more current war has inflicted on the happiness of individuals residing outside the conflict zone. The results of these studies underscore the sensitivity of conclusions to specific methodological choices, primarily variable specification, and inclusion criteria. In general, this study challenges the notion that experience with war, whether it be 60 years ago or ongoing, has a true and significant impact on the wellbeing of European citizens.
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    Food security and social entrepreneurship : an investigation into the Bangladesh agripreneurial ecosystem.
    (2023) Ahmed, Sayed
    Food security has remained a global concern since the world food crisis of the 1970s, focusing on ensuring sufficient food for marginalized populations. Including those experiencing poverty, vulnerability, women, and children. As a mission-driven business phenomenon, social entrepreneurship plays a pivotal role in society by integrating economic activities through small, and medium enterprises. Entrepreneurs leverage networks to address social problems, including the interplay between food security, economic growth, and the development of social entrepreneurship within an entrepreneurial ecosystem. This study examines the potential of social entrepreneurship in promoting sustainable regional food production to achieve food security, with a specific emphasis on appropriate models for the small agribusiness sector in Bangladesh, a developing country. The data collection for this study involved Zoom and telephone interviews, archival research, and a field visit to research sites in Bangladesh. Interviews were conducted with milk and beef farmers, government officials, NGOs, and private organizations, revealing shared goals and unique financial services through public-private collaborations. However, the findings underscored the challenges most milk and beef farmers face in enhancing food security, which affects socioeconomic conditions and well-being of the farmers. In addition, farmers require improved access to finance and increased cohesion among financial service providers. The study identifies issues relating to the accessibility of finance and timely provision of opportunities for promoting food security. Furthermore, it emphasizes the significance of sustainable production practices in achieving food security and enhancing household welfare through social entrepreneurship. Addressing these challenges necessitates policy changes that target the underlying causes of difficulties in loan disbursement in rural areas. This entails improving policies, legislation and taking necessary actions to mitigate the impact of climate conditions and corruption. Public-private partnerships and joint ventures emerge as potential solutions to reduce the high costs of loan disbursement and enhance food security, income, and economic well-being in rural areas.
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    An investigation into digitalisation of the general practice health services during a pandemic : a New Zealand study.
    (2023) Mashal, Nargis
    The Covid-19 pandemic affected nearly every aspect of the world we live in, from economic and environmental fluctuations to changes in income, education, employment, sustainability, healthcare, and more. The tremendous speed of technological progress in the digital and remote workforce has accelerated the diffusion of digital innovation across all sectors, particularly in primary care within the healthcare sector. Compared to other industries, the slow adoption of technological innovation in healthcare has been a well-researched topic. Although several studies have been published on innovation in healthcare, few have focused on the process of digital innovation adoption by General Practice (GP) Medical centres during a pandemic. While the adoption of digitalised innovation is necessary for healthcare to meet the ever-rising demand for healthcare provision, the digitalisation capabilities of GP medical centres, which are the first point of contact in providing healthcare services within the communities, have surprisingly been neglected from further research. There is evidence that before the Covid-19 pandemic, few GP medical service providers were open to adopting digitalised solutions and innovation, resulting in missed opportunities for overt improvements in efficiency. Pandemics are becoming increasingly frequent due to the increasing human population, globalisation, and climate change. Using digitalised solutions and digitalised innovation to respond to challenges posed by pandemics has been touted as a necessary capability that GP medical service providers must adopt to achieve optimal healthcare service outcomes for their patients. This thesis aims to use the Covid-19 phenomenon to increase the understanding of the digital innovation adoption process and outcome of digitalisation amongst GP medical service providers. To this end, this thesis presents the results of the investigation into how GP medical service providers can respond better to pandemics by adopting digitalised solutions and becoming fluent across different types of digitalisation innovation within the New Zealand healthcare sector. A qualitative research approach was adopted using multiple case study design to achieve this aim. Cases were comprised of GP medical service providers in New Zealand. Data collected from in-depth interviews were analysed by thematic coding, using qualitative analysis software complemented by visual and hand coding. The findings show that GP medical centres have adopted digital solutions by following a forced adoption process to meet the demands of their patients in providing more healthcare services during a pandemic. Additionally, this thesis contributes to the understanding of digitalisation process enablers and barriers using the product innovation life cycle theory. This understanding is then used to provide relevant guidance regarding the Information Technology (IT) needs that need to be addressed to match the growth in health service demand. Furthermore, dynamic system methodology was used to effectively understand the links between enablers and be in a newly developed innovation life cycle framework for the digitalisation of GP Medical Centres during a pandemic. The further development of the general innovation life cycle framework by integrating enabler and barrier drivers influencing each phase of the digitalisation process is important to healthcare educators, and students as digitalisation transcends technological boundaries. Further research can be considered around the extension of the drivers for digitalisation post-pandemic and assessment of the impact of the digitalisation achieved during and post-pandemic.
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    Exploring the impact of leadership framing approaches on the sensemaking of frontline employees at times of change.
    (2023) Abdalla, Amr
    While organisational change literature is extensive and continues to expand, it still prioritises top management/change leaders’ perspectives, and in doing so, sustains a predominantly managerial logic. Furthermore, a review of the literature on making sense of strategic change confirms that very little attention has been given to the intersection between the sensemaking of change leaders and non-managerial organisational citizens who are tasked with realising the leadership’s strategic mandates for change. This doctoral study addresses this shortcoming in sensemaking literature by examining how frontline workers engage with and make sense of senior managers’ sensegiving during a restructuring of non-academic functions in a university. The design included two phases. Firstly, it examined the university change leaders’ sense- giving frames and how these influenced frontline employees’ sensemaking and sensegiving frames, and secondly, it looked at why leaders and frontline workers’ frames were so divergent. At the core of this study, the following questions were posited: RQ1: How do frontline staff frame their responses to change agents’ framing of change? RQ2: How are the change agents’ frames related to the staff’s framing responses? The researcher employed an interpretative research approach, as its subjective ontology was ideally suited to a study of sensemaking. All formal emails and documents disseminated to all employees by the change leaders were collected and key staff forums were attended to gather the change leaders’ formal sensegiving accounts. Members of the executive team, which included the key change leaders, were interviewed while 43 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with 34 frontline participants over 18 months of the official 24-month life span of the change project. The first stage of the analysis found that frontline workers’ framing responses were not directly related to the management’s formally communicated frames. Rather, the frames workers (i.e., change recipients) employed various degrees of communicative bypassing, by virtue of the way they chose to focus on understandings and informational resources associated with historical changes and the current change context. The phase two analysis, which sought to explain from the workers’ perspectives why such bypassing was occurring, found that workers perceived the change initiative as part of an ongoing process of organisational change, rather than an isolated one-time change event occurring in the present. This meant that the organisation’s history of change as experienced by the individual or reported by his or her colleagues was shaping present-time sensemaking. Furthermore, workers’ trust in the management’s credibility and their perceptions of procedural justice, as well as individuals’ appraisals of the utility of proposed changes, were identified as the core factors impacting participants’ framing of change. This research study’s contributions are fourfold. Firstly, the study contributes a rich empirical case that addresses sensemaking at the interface between change leaders and change recipients. Secondly, it extends the conceptualisation of how frontline staff make sense of strategic change by incorporating change history. Thirdly, it reveals how, in an organisation with a history of frequent strategic changes, frontline workers targeted by these changes make sense of current change by mobilising expectations established by their past experiences of change and readily available information on the competence change histories of their organisation’s new change leaders. Finally, this study demonstrates how the failure to address information regarding past changes further compounds the bypassing effect between change leaders’ sensegiving and frontline workers’ sensemaking. Together, the findings contribute an original case study of sensemaking at the intersection between change leaders and change recipients, which includes an original conceptualisation that incorporates the concepts of temporality, organisational memory and prospective sensemaking. The case and especially this model have theoretical and practical implications.
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    Tax education in New Zealand secondary schools and its impact on taxpayer compliance.
    (2023) Beaver, Amy
    Existing research conducted outside of New Zealand shows that the influence of education on taxpayer compliance has mixed effects, where increased levels of tax education can enhance compliance or enhance non-compliance. Hence, the impact of tax education on taxpayers’ compliance behaviour is still unclear. This research investigates the impact of tax education on taxpayer compliance in New Zealand, to determine whether increasing taxpayer education levels in New Zealand secondary schools would help to enhance taxpayer compliance behaviour and attitudes towards the tax system. Furthermore, the role of tax education in New Zealand requires further empirical research to determine the impact of education on tax compliance, an analysis of tax education research in a New Zealand context undertaken by Sawyer and Tan (2020) revealed only one publication from 2004. This shows a lack of research undertaken on this topic in New Zealand and requires further analysis. Hence, this study has been conducted in New Zealand to contribute to further research in this area and bridge this gap in the literature. This study will employ a mixed-method research design, comprised of two identical surveys of first-year undergraduate students taking separate courses at the University of Canterbury (UC), and semi-structured interviews of high school teachers across New Zealand. The surveys utilised replicate and extends the study conducted by Morgan and Castelyn (2018), who researched tax education and its impact on taxpayer compliance in an Australian context in 2018. The questionnaire used in the surveys mainly replicated Morgan and Castelyn’s (2018) questionnaire, with adjustments made to better suit the New Zealand context, to analyse students’ opinions and attitudes towards taxes and New Zealand’s tax system. In addition, interviews of high school teachers across New Zealand were conducted utilising a semi-structured approach. This allowed the researcher to analyse the feelings and opinions of those who would be conferring this information to students, to determine if the current curriculum contains any tax education and if teachers believe it would be beneficial for it to be included. The survey results provide a baseline of students’ attitudes and education levels, while the findings of the semi-structured interviews allow the researcher to see this topic through the lens of high school teachers for a more holistic view.
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    Information transfer for sustainability outcomes in Waikato dairy farming : farmer’s perspectives.
    (2023) Harris, Joseph Michael Dunstall
    Environmental degradation caused by dairy farming can be positively affected through conscious decision making by farmers. This thesis examines how Waikato dairy farmers use information transfer processes within their environmental decisions. Previous authors have defined such processes, documenting how people progress from awareness to action in varying circumstances. However, there is a gap in the case of specific research regarding environmental action and the nature of interactions between farmers and their key information sources in New Zealand. Eleven in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to provide insight into farmer’s perspectives, with real-world examples and outcomes being identified. Interview transcripts were then unpacked using thematic analysis to identify themes/trends amongst participants. Through this process, the requirements necessary for information to be actionable are identified, with examples of sources and channels that meet these criteria provided. Comparisons between sources of information (industry bodies, media, peers, salespeople, government, iwi, and scientific papers) gives perspective on the level of importance that each hold for farmers. When viewed in conjunction with the channels valued by farmers, information about environmental innovations/practices can be disseminated effectively, encouraging pro-environmental change. This improves current and future outcomes, from safe effluent and fertiliser management to the adoption of innovative cropping techniques and emissions reduction strategies. Effective information transfer is in the interest of both the dairy industry, through addressing evolving customer needs, and government, through reaching national and regional environment goals.
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    Making the Crown accountable for Te Tiriti in the public budgeting process.
    (2023) Maxwell, Julia Ann
    This thesis explores ways in which Māori can hold the Crown accountable for Te Tiriti in the public budgeting process in Aotearoa New Zealand. Employing a kaupapa Māori case study research approach, it examines various perspectives of accountability within the public budgeting process and investigates how accountability mechanisms can be used as tools to both disempower and empower Indigenous Peoples. This thesis is driven by growing claims for the need to have greater Indigenous perspectives included in governance, and that the Crown's exclusive right to resource allocation in New Zealand fundamentally breaches Te Tiriti, as it limits Māori ability to exercise rangatiratanga. Thus, it explores potential avenues for how Māori can hold the Crown accountable for Te Tiriti in the public budgeting process. The suggested accountability mechanisms aim to not only fulfill Te Tiriti obligations, but also promote a more equitable public budgeting process for all of society. Through conducting semi-structured interviews with Indigenous and Non-Indigenous experts within relevant fields, the study uncovers the structural constraints within the kāwanatanga sphere. This highlights the imperative of pursuing constitutional transformation to enhance capacity within the rangatiratanga sphere and to promote the advancement of the relational sphere between sovereigns. These findings contribute to the limited body of public accountability literature by broadening the discourse within a settler-colonial context. This expansion goes beyond the formal public sector, to encompass both the rangatiratanga and relational spheres of influence. This development is argued to deepen democracy and create a more inclusive form of public accountability. This study holds implications, not only for New Zealand, but also for other settler-colonial states grappling with similar issues concerning reconciling with Indigenous Peoples, in alignment with Treaty rights and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
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    Audit partner perspectives : mandatory audit partner rotation in New Zealand.
    (2023) Fairburn, Adam
    New Zealand mandated audit partner rotation regulations for New Zealand Exchange (NZX) entities in May 2004, since then audit partner rotation policies have been implemented for Financial Markets Conduct entities and entities overseen by the Office of the Auditor General. Time-on periods for engagement partners range from five to seven-year followed by a five-year cooling-off period. Rotation policies also apply to engagement quality control reviewers and other key audit partners. The multi-dimensional structure of rotation regulations that have been implemented aligns New Zealand with countries that have significantly larger populations and GDP’s. The purpose of audit partner rotation is to reduce the ‘familiarity threat’ and increase independence between the engagement partner and client. The incoming audit partner should also bring a ‘fresh perspective’ to the engagement to increase audit quality and efficiencies. Using semi-structured interviews to conduct a qualitative study, the purpose of which is to discover how audit partners perceive mandatory audit partner rotation and what the implications are from transposing audit partner rotation regulations from large-scale economies to a small-scale economy. Fifteen interviewees were selected consisting of Big Four and non-Big Four audit partners. The research design for this study was to replicate a study done by Braun and Clark (2006) using thematic analysis to analyse the qualitative data and to document the real-life experiences of audit partners following a change to their realities. The key findings and conclusions from this study are that regulators have chosen to align New Zealand audit partner rotation policies to large-scale economises rather than ‘right size’ them to New Zealand’s demographic environment. Audit partners perceive that mandatory audit partner rotation disproportionately disadvantage small to mid-sized audit firms due to limited audit partner resources. The implications of which has been that a number of small audit firms have left the registered audit firms market increasing market concentration. Extended cooling-off periods are the biggest challenge to audit firms.
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    Understanding the digital transformation of SMEs in New Zealand.
    (2023) Dawda, Vidhi B.
    This thesis aims to investigate the process of digital transformation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in New Zealand. Through an in-depth analysis of literature, reports, and news articles, it has been highlighted that there is a digital lag in New Zealand despite its apparent benefits as there is limited digital adoption by businesses. This study aims to investigate the challenges contributing to this phenomenon and concurrently aims to understand the motivations behind the businesses that chose to adopt digital transformation. It not only attempts to explore this phenomenon through the perspective of owners/managers but also through the viewpoint of the employees; as employees’ perspective on digital transformation has received limited attention in the literature. The researcher has adopted the qualitative research method using the interpretivism paradigm to answer the research questions of this thesis. Later, the data was gathered using case study method in which the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with the participants and analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Through this study, it was found that competition, efficiency, and real-time scenarios are the major reasons for adopting digital transformation, whereas financial factors and human factors were the main challenges faced by these businesses. This research uncovers the expectations of the participants from the government that will enable these businesses to adopt digital transformation and accelerate the process. Additionally, this study concludes with the discussions of the findings along with its theoretical contributions and explores the practical and policy implications of this study.
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    An investigation into male adoption of androgynous fashion.
    (2023) Turner, Callum
    Androgynous fashion is a growing trend as we see more and more adopters such as celebrities, influencers, and everyday people, especially men following the trend. This is also reflected in the high-end fashion market and runways of luxury fashion houses (Madsen, 2022). A review of the literature related to androgynous fashion, fashion theory, gender roles in marketing and men’s fashion adoption shows several gaps. The current literature provides many theories for how fashion diffuses and is adopted (Sproles, 1974) and the influence of celebrity culture and fashion influencers on fashion trends (Nouri, 2018). However, there is no conclusive literature that can explain the phenomena that is occurring with male adoption of androgynous fashion. This study explores the male androgynous fashion phenomenon within the New Zealand context. To tackle this research a qualitative exploratory study with twelve semi-structured interviews was used to bridge this gap in the literature. This research follows an interpretivist paradigm using inductive reasoning to allow the themes to emerge from the data set and was analysed with thematic analysis. From the analysis several models were proposed to illustrate the phenomena of male androgynous fashion adoption. The findings indicate male adopters have a distinct desire for self-expression through their fashion. The findings also indicate that there are other factors outside of the participant’s self-expression which have had an indirect effect on their adoption of androgynous fashion. These consist of changing social values, celebrity, and pop culture influences. The study raises several theoretical and managerial implications relating to male adoption of androgynous fashion. This thesis contributes to the literature on androgyny, risk mitigation when adopting androgynous fashion, and proposes a male androgynous fashion adoption model that captures various elements of the phenomenon.
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    The GST/VAT treatment of supplies of residential premises : a new approach.
    (2023) Peacock, Christine Ann
    In the traditional European Union VAT system, the supply, before first occupation of immovable property, is generally taxable while other supplies of immovable property are generally exempt. In more modern GST/VAT systems the first sale of residential premises is generally taxable whereas supplies between otherwise unregistered consumers are generally exempt or outside the scope of GST/VAT. The consumption value of residential premises generally appreciates in value over time. Therefore, the value of total consumption may be greater than the value of residential premises at the time of first acquisition. This is problematic, as the objective of GST/VAT is to tax consumption. Application of the current approach means that there may be consumption which is not included in the GST/VAT base. This thesis considers two alternative approaches to the current GST/VAT treatment of supplies of residential premises. The first of these involves including imputed rent in the GST/VAT base. The second alternative approach involves including sales of residential premises between otherwise unregistered homeowners in the GST/VAT base. This thesis compares and evaluates these approaches to find whether either of these produces a result which is more consistent with the GST/VAT policy objective of taxing consumption compared to the current approach.
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    Evolving sports viewership : social media influence on viewing behaviour.
    (2023) Bui, Cindy
    Social media can act as a catalyst for shifting the way that consumers view and consume sports games and content. Social media is quickly becoming a popular method for doing so, due to its accessibility and engaging content. This research is important, because with both social media evolving and the sporting industry changing, the viewership patterns for consumers have also changed. In addition, there is a research gap in the New Zealand context, with limited research conducted on sports viewership patterns on social media, along with the types of social media platforms used by consumers. To fulfil the research gap, the method of exploratory research will be applied. Using a qualitative, interpretivist approach, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis was used to interpret consumer behaviour and experiences. The goal of this thesis is to better understand why consumers use social media to view sports games and to explore viewership changes through social media. The key findings from this research are a change in social media content consumers use to view sports games, especially highlights, resulting in snack-sized sports video clips being viewed instead of the full-length sports game. The social media algorithms also influence the type of sporting content consumers view, by providing recommendations on their social media feeds. The implications from this research contribute to sports marketing and social media literature, along with implications for the sporting industry to generate favourable sporting content for fans and consumers.
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    Starting with zero : current perceptions of zero percent alcohol.
    (2023) Clark, Jack Angus
    This thesis takes a look at perceptions of zero percent alcohol. In investigating literature, it is found that there has been a lack of focus on researching the qualitative thoughts consumers have towards this alcohol alternative. Based on the dangers of regular alcohol, it would be useful if zero percent alcohol could be used as one of several solutions to problematic drinking. Therefore, this thesis takes shape around the premise of building this field of literature, and investigating perceptions around zero percent alcohol. In its efforts to do so, this thesis used qualitative interviews with traditional questions to gather in-depth information from those who participated in this studied. It also used a projective technique, due to the intrinsic symbolic nature behind regular alcohol, and potentially zero percent alcohol. A thematic analysis was used on the data gathered, establishing several key themes. These themes were knowledge, symbolic meaning, drinking motives, and substitutability. Together, they explained the various factors that determined perceptions of zero percent alcohol. In analysing these areas in-depth, it was found that zero percent alcohol could not be a replacement for regular alcohol at present. Within the research findings, it became clear that zero percent alcohol was not considered as important as regular alcohol and was only useful for temporary substitution. It ultimately appeared that regular alcohol had physiological appeal, and deep symbolic meaning that subsequently decreased the value of zero percent alcohol. Despite this, it was also found that zero percent alcohol had favourable connotations when investigating its symbolic meaning with participants. From these conclusions, a contribution to literature was made through the outlining of perceptions of zero percent alcohol that both coincided with previous literature findings, and several that were unique to zero percent alcohol amongst other alcohol alternatives. This also lead to suggestions for social marketers on how to facilitate use of zero percent alcohol, and rebrand it so that it might become a tool in addressing problematic alcohol consumption.
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    The role of entrepreneurial marketing in SME business continuity during a pandemic
    (2023) Noordanus, Leo William Anthony
    The COVID-19 pandemic has put business continuity around the world to the test. Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) experience greater susceptibility and vulnerability to such crisis environments than larger enterprises. This study investigates the influence of Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM) on SME business continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study adapts and extends Morrish and Jones’ (2020) EM Post-disaster Business Recovery Framework to create a business continuity centred framework. The conceptual framework is the theoretical centrepiece of this thesis. The study follows a qualitative methodology, conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with New Zealand SME founding entrepreneurs who were able to continue business operations during the pandemic. Data was analysed following a deductive thematic analysis approach, in which the findings offer significant insights into business continuity during the pandemic. The findings are related to the pandemic environmental impacts, the entrepreneurial factors influencing the decision-making, the alternative actions that were taken to achieve business continuity and the EM behavioural traits that led to business continuity. The results identify the key factors influencing business continuity during a pandemic, as well as evaluate how the utilisation of EM contributes to business continuity in such a crisis. As a theoretical contribution, this study offers a new business continuity model: The Entrepreneurial Marketing Pandemic Crisis Business Continuity (EMPCBC) Model (Figure 5.). The model is designed to be adopted by SMEs as a means of achieving business continuity in a crisis environment.
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    Don’t skip the sunscreen : exploring factors in advertising sunscreen application.
    (2023) Calder, Megan Kathleen
    The burden of skin cancer, specifically melanoma, is considerable worldwide, with prevention as simple as seeking shade, wearing a hat and applying sunscreen. This thesis aims to investigate the influence advertising has on consumers’ intentions to apply sunscreen. It was determined through a review of the literature that the factors of gender and peer groups may prove useful to incorporate into advertisements in an attempt to influence sunscreen application intentions. The research adopts an experimental design to understand the influence of certain stimuli portrayed in an advertisement on respondents’ behavioural intentions. This approach uses a 2 x 3 between-subjects factorial design in the form of an online questionnaire. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of six conditions, which were presented as advertisements, with each manipulating the two independent variables, gender (male vs. female) and peer groups (a singular person applying sunscreen to themselves vs. a peer applying sunscreen to their peer). Respondents were recruited through social media, with a final data set consisting of 294 responses that were used for the analysis. A series of MANCOVA, one-way ANCOVA and independent samples t-test analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses for this research. The results indicate that the manipulations of the independent variables did not significantly influence respondents’ sunscreen application intentions. However, respondents' sunscreen application intentions were high across all manipulations, which indicates that respondents are in tune with applying sunscreen. Several correlations were found between the scale variables, and significant covariate relationships were identified to affect the outcome of the dependent variables. Specifically, the relationships between the three variables of interpersonal touch attitudes. These relationships show how society has developed and become accepting of help from friends. The theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are discussed, followed by suggestions for areas of future research.
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    Resurrecting the estate duty in contemporary New Zealand.
    (2023) Shivas, Matthew
    This research investigates the feasibility of re-introducing a comprehensive estate duty regime in contemporary New Zealand, explored through the lenses of tax practitioners and tax academics. Estate duty was utilised in New Zealand for 111 years, from 1881 until 1992. Once a well-regarded and moderate contributor to the New Zealand tax system, the estate duty regime withered in both popularity and efficiency during the second half of the 20th century, eventually being abolished by the incumbent National Government in 1992. Since the 1992 estate duty abolition, few scholars have published literature regarding the possible re-introduction of the estate duty in New Zealand. Estate duty has also remained an equally absent topic in the New Zealand parliamentary debates (NZPD). As such, this research explores the practicability of re-imposing an estate duty in New Zealand by probing the knowledge and theories of tax practitioners and tax academics. Through semi-structured interviews, participants first elaborated on their past experiences and knowledge (if any) of the previous estate duty regime. The participants were then asked to evaluate why (in their view) the estate duty was abolished in New Zealand in 1992. The semi-structured interviews then assessed the rationales for, and against, levying an estate duty in present-day New Zealand. While some participants supported a new estate duty on the basis of greater fairness and wealth redistribution in the New Zealand tax system, others criticised the regime for being overly complex and political in nature. The tax practitioners and tax academics also recognised issues of asset selection, asset valuation, the tax rate, liquidity, exemptions, inter vivos gifting, trusts, and migration as key matters for policymakers to address prior to any possible resurrection of estate duty in New Zealand. Whether or not an estate duty is the right fit for New Zealand, it is evident that conflicts surrounding the taxing of wealth endure.
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    Gay male leaders in the corporate sector of China : a phenomenological study.
    (2023) Chen, Zuo
    Both academia and international media reports have depicted a low level of acceptance towards homosexuals in China. However, some gay male individuals have taken leadership roles in corporate sector of China, although their sexual orientation is not accepted by the mainstream of society and they may choose to hide it in the workplace. Exploring their experience is important for understanding the leadership of people with less visible but biased characteristics, specifically homosexual individuals. However, limited literature shed light on this topic. To address this gap, this study explores the lived experience of gay male leaders in the Chinese corporate sector through semistructured interviews with 16 participants from companies in various regions and with different ownership structures. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. The findings reveal three interconnected actions taken by gay male leaders in corporate sector of China to maintain self-integration and achieve better leadership performance, and three patterns in conducting these actions. This study makes important contributions to diversified leadership research by providing detailed insights into the feelings, attitudes, and behaviours of gay male leaders. Moreover, it provides strategies and real experiences of gay men’s career development for Chinese gay male individuals who seek career advancement.
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    Circular supply chains : enhancing consumer participation.
    (2023) Robertson, Juliet
    With increasing necessity for the world to respond to environmental crisis, environmental guardianship is essential and can be achieved through the circular economy (CE). The CE is defined by a rethinking of how resources are used, proposing a system of cascaded resource use and reuse, to fuel economic prosperity without depleting the earth’s resources. This is achieved through a circular consumption model that is in stark contrast to the traditional linear consumption model. To allow this change in society’s consumption, firms’ supply chains must also undergo change. The transformation of linear supply chains to circular closed-loop supply chains is on the horizon for many firms and is the topic of significant discussion within supply chain management research. An area that can be considered under-researched in this topic is that of consumers returning materials to the supply chain. As a result, this research addresses the question of how firms can invoke stronger consumer engagement in returning materials in closed-loop supply chains. To consider the consumer propensity to return materials, the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) is employed as the theoretical lens. This study therefore focuses on the factors that influence consumers’ intentions to return materials. These include the traditional theory of planned behaviour factors as well as ‘habits’ and ‘moral norms’ that were expected to offer further explanation in this context. A survey, designed on Qualtrics, was created to collect data for quantitative analysis. The ‘intention to return’ dependent variable was investigated for three product categories that survey respondents used in their lives. Focus was given to product categories that are ‘low-involvement’, meaning little care is given to their purchase and their end-of-life. The three products were single-use coffee pods, printer cartridges and batteries. Data was collected from respondents who are users of these products from New Zealand and Australia, recruited through the Prolific platform. Research contributions are relevant to both supply chain practitioners moving towards a closed-loop system and for further research in the arena. The results showed a consistently significant influence from two variables across the three parallel studies: perceived behavioural control and moral norms. Given the minimal influence of other variables, this indicates a limitation to traditional consumer behaviour models on consumers engaging in low-involvement behaviours. Implications of these findings are in the theoretical, practical and policy realms. Potential applications of the findings are given throughout the discussion of results. A key contribution is the recommendation of robust policy to achieve the CE in New Zealand in regard to these unique goods.