QuakeCoRE: 2020 Posters

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Source considerations for moderate magnitude earthquake ground motion simulation validation
    (2020) Lee R; Graves R; Paterson J; Motha J; Huang J; Schill C; Polak V; Bae S; Bradley, Brendon
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ground motions simulation of hypothetical earthquake sources in the upper North Island, NZ
    (2020) Dempsey, David; Eccles, Jennifer; Huang, Jonney; Nicolin, Elia; Stolte, Andrew; Wotherspoon, Liam; Bradley, Brendon
    The upper North Island of New Zealand has low rates of seismicity compared to the rest of the country. However, large concentrations of population and infrastructure mean this region is exposed to moderate magnitude earthquakes on the Kerepehi Fault within the Hauraki Rift, and the Wairoa North Fault in the Hūnua Ranges. Using a physics-based simulator, we modelled ground motions for Mw 7.3 and Mw 6.6 characteristic earthquakes on these structures. Low-velocity sediments in basins beneath the Hauraki Rift and the city of Hamilton were explicitly represented. For the Hauraki Rift earthquake, there was a 2 to 3 times amplification of shaking in Hamilton and towns near the Firth of Thames for periods longer than 1 s. Severe to violent MMI 8-9 shaking with cumulative absolute velocity exceeding 2 g.s is modelled close to the source, which would be a potential liquefaction hazard to stop banks and farmland in the Hauraki depression. Auckland, Hamilton and Tauranga would experience moderate to very strong MMI 5-7 shaking. Simulated impacts in Auckland are larger for the Wairoa North Fault earthquake, which would generate spectral accelerations in excess of 1.0 g at reservoir dams in the Hūnua Ranges, 0.4 g at the international airport, and 0.3 g at the CBD and port. Road, rail and electricity networks are particularly vulnerable to disruption where they converge at Takanini (South Auckland) just 10 km from the fault.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Te Hiranga Rū QuakeCoRE Quake Centre outreach programmes
    (2020) Alger, Brandy; Midwood-Murray, Anne-Marie; Midwood-Murray, Benoir; Kaiser, Lucy; Lake-Hammond, Alice; Boersen, Kate
    This poster covers the Outreach Programmes created by Te Hiranga Rū QuakeCoRE along with Quake Centre. The Outreach Programmes cover a multitude of projects and audiences with the goal of creating a more resilient Aotearoa New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Tsunami evacuation behaviour and dynamics of the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake: Informing network-based modelling for Kaikōura, New Zealand
    (2020) Tilley, Laura; Wilson, Thomas; Hughes, Matthew; Beaven, Sarah; Jack, Helen; Scattergood, Kd
    Understanding evacuation behaviour and associated dynamics of an earthquake response provides valuable information to consider for future disaster risk management and response planning. Whilst the majority of evacuation behaviour literature focus on a specific phase during the evacuation response such as tsunami preparedness, risk awareness, or evacuation intentions, limited survey research has captured a comprehensive overview of a complete evacuation process of real earth-quake-tsunami events. This research addresses this gap by analysing the evacuation response of Kaikōura residents following the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake and subsequent tsunami, with the intention to inform realistic rules and interaction inputs for evacuation modelling. A questionnaire survey was developed to better understand risk awareness influence on warning and evacuation decision-making processes and origin-route-destination location response. The survey results of 131 Kaikōura residents showed that the majority of respondents had a ‘good’ or ‘very good’ level of knowledge on tsunami hazard and the need to evacuate prior to the Kaikōura earthquake, which resulted in a high proportion of respondents evacuating because of a potential tsunami. Furthermore, many respondents attributed their high level of awareness to Civil Defence information which reflects the extensive emergency management public education and awareness campaigns on disaster risk in Kaikōura over the last ten years. Geospatial information of origin-route-destination locations revealed common safe zone locations along Kaikōura peninsula, prevalent evacuation routes and congestion barriers experienced during the 2016 event. This information informed key parameters for the development of a network-based vehicular evacuation model to estimate evacuation time for individual households and Kaikōura’s road network. The results of this research provides new and insightful information for local, regional and national level emergency response planning and enhance disaster resilience in New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating the relevance and effectiveness of AF8 since the project began in 2016
    (2020) Orchiston, Caroline; Lake-Hammond, Alice; Scally-Irvine, Kara
    The work of AF8 is fundamentally about supporting good planning and coordination of all key agencies in the South Island to effectively respond (in the first seven days) to a significant future earthquake on the Alpine Fault. Work to date has focussed on bringing leading science research into the development of an Alpine Fault magnitude 8 scenario, which then informed the response planning phase, culminating in the SAFER Framework. Engaging in wider engagement and outreach activities has been on-going, aimed to increase the understanding and access to information by the wider community around how to plan and respond to a future Alpine Fault earthquake. A key feature of AF8 has been that is has represented a collaborative effort across a range of agencies, organisations, and locations. An additional aspect of AF8’s work has therefore been testing and demonstrating how to undertake a complex collaborative project, that requires the integration of knowledge, skills and expertise. Given the period of time that has elapsed since the AF8 was established, it is timely to conduct an evaluation of the project to identify: - the extent to which it is contributing to its intended outcomes - any other unintended outcomes (positive and negative) - lessons learned, that could be usefully applied to other similar types of projects. In essence, this evaluation research aims to understand the relevance, need and coherence of AF8’s efforts, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of the work produced. Key informant interviews will be conducted over the next two months to ascertain the contribution AF8 has made to building resilience. This process is vital to continuing the co-creation approach taken by AF8, which requires reflection and listening to feedback from across the network of stakeholders who have helped to make AF8 a success.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Development of a decision support system through modelling of critical infrastructure interdependencies
    (2020) Syed, Yasir Imtiaz; Prasanna, Raj; Uma, S.R.; Stock, Kristin; Blake, Denise
    Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as electricity, water, fuel, telecommunication, and road networks are a crucial factor for secure and reliable operation of a society. In a non-emergency situation, most businesses operate on an individual infrastructure. However, after major natural disasters such as earthquakes, the conflicts and complex interdependencies among the different infrastructures can cause significant disturbances, as a failure can propagate from one infrastructure to another. To overcome these concerns, this study has developed a Knowledge-Centered Decision Support System (KCDSS) through an integrated impact assessment framework to model CI interdependencies. The KCDSS can predict the CIs’ dynamic behaviour, as well as their reliability and flexibility in response to large-scale disturbances. The KCDSS can be used as an interface between risk assessment and economic modelling tools to quantify the economic consequences resulting from the infrastructure damage. The KCDSS can show the overall level of service (LOS) of a selected region using the information about damage to infrastructure components. The output of the KCDSS are shown through Geographical Information System (GIS) based time stamped outage maps, which can be used by emergency management stakeholders to decisions about the various impacts of infrastructure failure and examine post-disaster recovery options including reinforcement planning, identification of vulnerabilities, and adding or discarding redundancies in an infrastructure network.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wall-to-floor connection behaviour in a low-damage concrete wall building
    (2020) Yang, Qun; Henry, Rick; Lu, Yiqiu
    Following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes, approximately 60% of multi-story buildings with reinforced concrete walls required demolition. Both practitioners and researchers have increasingly realized that low-damage structural systems could be an alternative to improve the seismic behaviour of concrete buildings and to reduce the economic and social impact of structural damage in future earthquakes. To verify the seismic response of a low-damage concrete wall building representing state-of-art design practice, a shake table test on a two-story concrete building was recently conducted as part of an ILEE-QuakeCoRE collaborative research program. The building utilized flexible wall-to-floor connections in the long span direction and isolating wall-to-floor devices in the short span direction to provide a comparison of their respective behaviour. Additionally, the wall-to-floor interaction such as effects of wall uplift on the link slab, and force transfer mechanism from floor to the wall will be discussed in this paper.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ehara taku toa i te toa takitahi, engari he toa takitini: Learnings from emerging wāhine researchers undertaking community-based resilience projects
    (2020) Thomas, Kristie-Lee; Kaiser, Lucy; Campbell, Emily
    Despite increasing attention on the importance of earthquake and tsunami risk reduction for Aotearoa New Zealand communities, there are limited Māori-medium resources available, and more representation of Māori, and wāhine (women) researchers is needed within the field. This poster illustrates key learnings from three emerging wāhine researchers who utilised a range of novel approaches to engagement and collaboration including traditional story-telling, Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and design technologies to increase resilience for Māori communities from tamariki (children) to kaumatua (elders) during recent community-based research projects. These projects were: Te Hīkoi a Rūaumoko (digitising a bilingual book based on Ngāti Kahungunu iwi pūrākau), Te Kura e Te Āniwhaniwha (educational outreach programme piloting a tuakana/teina (sibling) mentorship model for Māori-medium schools), and memorialising the 1868 tsunami in Wharekauri-Rekohu (the Chatham Islands) through interactive and recipricol hui and event. Weaving together these three projects is a wider narrative of ethnographic reflection exploring the role of three emerging wāhine researchers collaborating in the discipline of seismic research and the challenges and successes involved within this. A number of themes emerged from our collective experiences including the importance of maintaining a Te Ao Māori or bicultural lens, engagement, reciprocity and academic and cultural support. From our experiences as early career Māori researchers and in light of the suggestions in the work of our Māori and indigenous colleagues we offer a number of initiatives for universities, research institutions and researchers to consider, for supporting a pathway to a strengthened, inclusive and diverse earthquake/tsunami resilience field.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Investigating Tangata whenua views and responses to climate change
    (2020) Kaiser, Lucy
    Tangata Whenua residing in Murihiku (Southland region), Aotearoa/New Zealand have experienced a long history of seismicity, resulting from their proximity to the Alpine Fault system. Earthquakes have significantly shaped the land, and exacerbated the ongoing impacts of other environmental hazards. Climate change-related events such as sea level rise, ex-tropical cyclones, and severe storms (e.g. February 2020 Southland Floods) have added to the complex hazardscape in the region, and adversely impacted Tangata Whenua, physically, culturally, economically and spiritually. Iwi, hapū and marae frameworks such as Ngāi Tahu ki Murihiku’s Te Tangi a Tauira environmental management plan (2008) and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu’s ‘He Rautaki Mō Te Huringa o te Āhuarangi’ climate change strategy (2018) take into account these change-related impacts and provide mechanisms for preparing, mitigating and responding to them.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Can regulatory intervention be successful? Review of the Unreinforced Masonry Securing Fund
    (2020) Filippova, Olga; Tong, Qing; Ingham, Jason
    This research investigates performance of the Unreinforced Masonry Buildings Securing Fund (URM Fund) that was established under the Hurunui/Kaikōura Earthquakes Recovery (Unreinforced Masonry Buildings) Order 2017. This analysis contributed to the post implementation review of the Order in Council (Order) to inform MBIE about the effectiveness of the regulatory design and implementation of the URM building policy and the securing fund. The Order targeted street-facing URM buildings in areas with high pedestrian and vehicular traffic within Hurunui, Hutt City, Marlborough and Wellington where risk from falling facades and parapets was the greatest. The Order empowered these four territorial authorities to issues notices under section 124 of the Building Act 2004 (modified under the Order) to require work to secure parapets and/or facades, giving building owners 12 months to carry out the work. In February 2018, the Order was amended to extend the time to complete securing work by six months, until September 2018. Review of the administrative data showed that the implementation of the URM Order was successful. As a result of the Order, 188 out of 189 buildings that have been issued with section 124 notices (under the Building Act) have been proven to be secure or were secured. Collectively, building owners and the government spent approximately $13 million on securing street-facing URM elements to ensure life safety of the public. The Order required significant resources to warrant success since its implementation would set the tone how for how local councils manage the wider EQPB programme.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Risk targeted hazard spectra for seismic design in New Zealand
    (2020) Horspool, Nick; Elwood, Ken; Gerstenberger, Matt
    New Zealand, like many other countries, designs buildings for ground motions with a uniform probability of occurrence such as the 1 in 500-year ground motion. If the expected response of a structure to the design ground motion is known with certainty, then this uniform hazard approach results in uniform risk of exceeding this limit state across a region. However, in reality, structures have uncertainty in their response due to variations in design, construction practices, strength of materials, and code compliance and this variability leads to non-uniform risk across a region. An alternative approach is to use risk targeted hazard spectra that are derived through convolution of hazard curves with representative fragility functions and result in uniform risk across a region. The use of risk targets allows performance objectives of building codes to be set in terms of acceptable levels of risk such as life safety, economic loss and downtime, and be developed with societal input. In this study, risk targeted hazard spectra are developed for New Zealand using multiple risk targets for individual and societal risk at the building and city scale. The results show how risk targeted hazard spectra can be incorporated in the existing NZS1170.5 loading standards with minimal changes. The proposed framework can be used to achieve uniform seismic risk in the building code and design for the performance of individual buildings as well as the performance of cities using multiple risk targets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Holistic evaluation of resilient structures: The environmental performance of beyond New Zealand building code structures
    (2020) Gonzalez, Rosa; Stephens, Max; Toma, Charlotte; Elwood, Ken; Dowdell, David
    Designing a structure for higher- than-code seismic performance can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. This higher performance can be achieved using the principles of Performance-Based Design, in which engineers design structures to minimize the probabilistic lifecycle seismic impacts on a building. Although the concept of Performance-Based Design is not particularly new, the initial capital costs associated with designing structures for higher performance have historically hindered the widespread adoption of performance-based design practices. To overcome this roadblock, this research is focused on providing policy makers and stakeholders with evidence-based environmental incentives for designing structures in New Zealand for higher seismic performance. In the first phase of the research, the environmental impacts of demolitions in Christchurch following the Canterbury Earthquakes were quantified to demonstrate the environmental consequences of demolitions following seismic events. That is the focus here. A building data set consisting of 142 concrete buildings that were demolished following the earthquake was used to quantify the environmental impacts of the demolitions in terms of the embodied carbon and energy in the building materials. A reduced set of buildings was used to develop a material takeoff model to estimate material quantities in the entire building set, and a lifecycle assessment tool was used to calculate the embodied carbon and energy in the materials. The results revealed staggering impacts in terms of the embodied carbon and energy in the materials in the demolished buildings. Ongoing work is focused developing an environmental impact framework that incorporates all the complex factors (e.g. construction methodologies, repair methodologies (if applicable), demolition methodologies (if applicable), and waste management) that contribute to the environmental impacts of building repair and demolition following earthquakes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessing the evacuation capacity of remote rural communities highly exposed to tsunami hazard: A case study of Wairarapa coastal communities
    (2020) Evans, Alice; Wilson, Thomas; Hughes, Matthew; Nilsson, Daniel
    Recent tsunami events around the world have produced devastating widespread impacts including large scale loss of life, displacement of coastal populations and economic disruption. In particular, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami caused increased urgency globally for further research and understanding of the likelihood and consequences of such events occurring elsewhere. New Zealand is a tectonically active island country; thus, it is highly exposed to tsunami hazard across its entire coastline, particularly on the east coast. Wairarapa, located on the lower east coast of the North Island in New Zealand is regarded as being a very high-risk area for tsunami. We undertook a preliminary study consisting of a tsunami exposure assessment to inform network-based vehicular evacuation modelling for a case study coastal area in the Wairarapa, Riversdale Beach. The findings revealed the potential for significant challenges in the evacuation procedure for Wairarapa coastal settlements due to a significant influx of visitors during the summer holiday period. This study aims to build on the preliminary research by using community engagement techniques to inform an agent-based evacuation model for Wairarapa and assess the overall evacuation capacity of the area. The research will fill a gap in tsunami literature both nationally and globally by using Wairarapa as a case study for assessing the evacuation capacity of remote rural communities which are highly exposed to tsunami hazard.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Finite element modelling of nonlinear seismic behaviour of precast prestressed hollow-core floors
    (2020) Sarkis, Ana Isabel; Sullivan, Tim; Brunesi, Emanuele; Nascimbene, Roberto
    As it has been learned from recent earthquakes, reinforced concrete buildings have historically been designed and constructed in ways that jeopardize their seismic performance. In particular, the early use of Precast Pre-stressed Hollow-Core (PPHC) floors saw the use of support connections that are susceptible to undesirable failure modes when subjected to earthquake-induced deformations. In the past twenty years, extensive experimental research programs in New Zealand have helped identify some of the main vulnerabilities of these floors and led to the development of support connection detailing capable of accommodating larger earthquake demands. While improved connection details have been developed, concerns regarding the seismic performance of buildings containing PPHC slabs have been raised following the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake. The earthquake dynamic characteristics caused high drift demands on some multi-story moment frame buildings resulting in damage to floor diaphragms, in particular. Furthermore, post-earthquake observations evidenced inconsistencies between the observed damage conditions and the damage states identified by past research, bringing into question the seismic assessment of buildings with this type of floor system, the residual capacity of the floors once the damage has been sustained, and the effectiveness of existing retrofit techniques. This research presents a comprehensive three-dimensional finite element modeling approach for PPHC units, seating connections, and diaphragms, validated against experimental data collected from previous and ongoing research. This research permits investigation on the impact of a wider range of parameters than could practically be considered in laboratory testing and with more precise control of variables such as material properties, helping to inform methods for assessing, and improving the seismic performance of PPHC floors in New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Digital storytelling in mediating caldera risk literacy in secondary school students
    (2020) Saha, Sriparna; Kennedy, Ben; Tolbert, Sara
    Lake Taupō in New Zealand is associated with frequent unrest and small to moderate eruptions. It presents a high consequence risk scenario with immense potential for destruction to the community and the surrounding environment. Unrest associated with eruptions may also trigger earthquakes. While it is challenging to educate people about the hazards and risks associated with multiple eruptive scenarios, effective education of students can lead to better mitigation strategies and risk reduction. Digital resources with user-directed outcomes have been successfully used to teach action oriented skills relevant for communication during volcanic crisis [4]. However, the use of choose your own adventure strategies to enhance low probability risk literacy for Secondary school outreach has not been fully explored. To investigate how digital narrative storytelling can mediate caldera risk literacy, a module “The Kid who cried Supervolcano” will be introduced in two secondary school classrooms in Christchurch and Rotorua. The module highlights four learning objectives: (a) Super-volcanoes are beautiful but can be dangerous (b) earthquake (unrest) activity is normal for super-volcanoes (c) Small eruptions are possible from super-volcanoes and can be dangerous in our lifetimes (d) Super-eruptions are unlikely in our lifetimes. Students will create their digital narrative using the platform Elementari (www.elementari.io). The findings from this study will provide clear understanding of students’ understanding of risk perceptions of volcanic eruption scenarios and associated hazards and inform the design of educational resources geared towards caldera risk literacy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wellington building inventory: Rapid earthquake response framework
    (2020) Ghasemi, Amin; Stephens, Max; Elwood, Ken
    This research is focused on regional building responses to earthquakes and identification of broad vulnerability archetypes to allow for development of high-level retrofit strategies to increase resilience and limit human and economic loss. Wellington has been selected as the case study for this research due to the unique access to building data within the central business district. In the first phase of this research, a ‘rough’ near real-time seismic impact framework was designed to identify the response of buildings to an earthquake. This framework showcases the consequences on the Wellington building inventory caused by an earthquake by comparing accelerations recorded at GNS strong motion stations to building design accelerations both at the SLS and ULS levels. The outputs of the framework are presented on an interactive map, which facilitates the different stakeholders, i.e., building owners and decision-makers to provide a rough estimation of the severity of building-level seismic impacts. The next phase of the research is focused on two main objectives: (1) quantifying the direct repair costs associated with earthquake damage to common structural vulnerabilities in terms of annual monetary loss and disruption and (2) proposing high-level retrofit strategies to reduce financial and human loss. To address these objectives, ongoing work is focused on identifying structural vulnerabilities common among Wellington buildings, and classifying the buildings in the inventory into the vulnerability groups using high-level clustering methods. Candidate buildings from each vulnerability group will be selected for detailed modeling, and the seismic response of these buildings will be quantified to develop high-level retrofit strategies to mitigate the social/financial risks of Wellington buildings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using machine learning techniques to predict seismic damage in Dunedin
    (2020) Kaushal, Saanchi; Ingham, Jason; Dizhur, Dmytro
    Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures comprise a majority of the global built heritage. The masonry heritage of New Zealand is comparatively younger to its European counterparts. In a country facing frequent earthquakes, the URM buildings are prone to extensive damage and collapse. The Canterbury earthquake sequence proved the same, causing damage to over _% buildings. The ability to assess the severity of building damage is essential for emergency response and recovery. Following the Canterbury earthquakes, the damaged buildings were categorized into various damage states using the EMS-98 scale. This article investigates machine learning techniques such as k-nearest neighbors, decision trees, and random forests, to rapidly assess earthquake-induced building damage. The damage data from the Canterbury earthquake sequence is used to obtain the forecast model, and the performance of each machine learning technique is evaluated using the remaining (test) data. On getting a high accuracy the model is then run for building database collected for Dunedin to predict expected damage during the rupture of the Akatore fault.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Understanding geomechanical and hydraulic vulnerabilities in dam-stopbank systems
    (2020) Wallace, Thomas; Crawford-Flett, Kaley
    Floods are New Zealand’s most frequent and damaging natural events. Stopbanks and dams provide the primary means of physical protection for many communities and are, therefore, critical for protecting life, property, and other infrastructure. Embankments within catchments are often constructed from similar local materials. The geotechnical properties of these materials are often poorly characterised, understood and/or documented. Uncertainties in the performance of embankments are compounded due to the practice at the time of design and construction, as most embankments were constructed between ~1880 and 1980. In this study an experimental programme will be undertaken to improve the understanding of how geomechanical and hydraulic parameters influence failure modes. By understanding the relative influence of certain geotechnical and hydraulic parameters, such as relative flow-embankment orientation, defect orientation, and soil collapsibility, a generic vulnerability assessment framework will be developed. While the NZSOLD Dam Safety Guidelines provide performance criteria for dams, there is currently no equivalent for stopbanks. This can lead to differences in levels of resilience provided by dams and stopbanks which may not be proportional to the relative importance of the structures. To this end, the potential consequences of failure of individual embankments within larger systems will be examined. Findings from this will inform a broader method for assessing the vulnerability and consequences of other dam-stopbank systems. This project aims: (1) A deeper understanding of the importance of individual embankment elements, (2) a framework to identify “weak links” in stopbank-dam embankment networks, and (3) tools to prioritise maintenance, and investment in embankment systems. Ultimately, this project aims to move flood risk management towards a broader system wide view to improve resilience and safety in downstream communities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leadership in extreme contexts
    (2020) Pepperell, Bruce
    This research aims to critically examine how people exercise authority (including governance, leadership, management, and command); to determine those capabilities and systems necessary to deliver more successful outcomes during situations of extreme context; and how through effective leadership, society can leverage unfortunate events to thrive, rather than merely survive? To achieve this, it is necessary to deconstruct the term leadership and examine the DNA of each of its components. To date, this has revealed concepts that had been lost to contemporary leadership thought and a theoretical spectrum which at times, struggles to cope with the dynamism present in extreme contexts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Informing tsunami evacuation modelling by evacuation dynamics from Christchurch and Banks Peninsula during the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake
    (2020) Barnhill, Danielle; Wilson, Thomas; Hughes, Matthew; Beaven, Sarah; Schoenfield, Marion
    Recent tsunami events have highlighted the importance of effective tsunami risk management strategies (including land-use planning, structural and natural mitigation, warning systems, education and evacuation planning). However, the rarity of tsunami means that empirical data concerning reactions to tsunami warnings and evacuation behaviour is rare when compared to findings for evacuations from other hazards. More knowledge is required to document the full evacuation process, including responses to warnings, pre-evacuation actions, evacuation dynamics, and the return home. Tsunami evacuation modelling has the potential to inform evidence-based tsunami risk planning and response. However, to date, tsunami evacuation models have largely focused on the timings of evacuations, rather than behaviours of those evacuating. In this research, survey data was gathered from coastal communities in Banks Peninsula and Christchurch, New Zealand, relating to behaviours and actions during the November 14th 2016 Kaikōura earthquake tsunami. Survey questions asked about immediate actions following the earthquake shaking, reactions to tsunami warnings, pre-evacuation actions, evacuation dynamics and details on congestion. This data was analysed to characterise trends and identify factors that influenced evacuation actions and behaviour, and was further used to develop a realistic evacuation model prototype to evaluate the capacity of the roading network in Banks Peninsula during a tsunami evacuation. The evacuation model incorporated tsunami risk management strategies that have been implemented by local authorities, and exposure and vulnerability data, alongside the empirical data collected from the survey. This research enhances knowledge of tsunami evacuation behaviour and reactions to tsunami warnings, and can be used to refine evacuation planning to ensure that people can evacuate efficiently, thereby reducing their tsunami exposure and personal risk.