Geospatial Research Institute: Journal Articles

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Now showing 1 - 11 of 11
  • ItemOpen Access
    The development and validation of a nationwide dataset of water distribution zones in Aotearoa New Zealand: A cross-sectional geospatial study
    (Elsevier BV, 2023) Puente-Sierra, M; Chambers , T; Marek, Lukas; Broadbent, J M; O'Brien, B; Hobbs, Matt
    The reliable supply of safe drinking water is vital for the health of human populations. Despite this, there is no consistent nationwide spatial dataset of water distribution zones (WDZ) for Aotearoa New Zealand (A-NZ). The purpose of this data article is to describe the development and validation of a consistent nationwide dataset of WDZ across A-NZ. We obtained spatial data from all 67 district and city councils through: 1) information requests between 2021 and 2023; 2) the Ministry of Health and; 3) the Institute of Environmental Science and Research. Data were modified to improve the spatial accuracy of the WDZ using auxiliary data on the building footprints (Land Information New Zealand) and the drinking water reticulation (WSP & councils). We estimated the population served by each WDZ through spatial linking to meshblock-level data provided by Statistics New Zealand (meshblocks are the smallest administrative geographic unit in A-NZ). The dataset will be useful to provide insights into the extent of the publicly-owned drinking water assets in A-NZ and is essential for the accurate exposure assessment in epidemiological research investigating the impact of drinking water quality on human health.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Why New Zealand is more vulnerable to a new COVID-19 outbreak than ever before
    (Conversation, 2021) Hobbs M; Gray L; Campbell, Malcolm
  • ItemOpen Access
    Delight, relief and caution: six experts on New Zealand’s move to ease its coronavirus lockdown
    (Conversation, 2020) Sutherland D; Basu A; Berka M; Baker M; Shaw R; Campbell, Malcolm
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reducing health inequity for Māori people in New Zealand
    (Elsevier BV, 2019) Hobbs M; Ahuriri-Driscoll A; Marek L; Campbell M; Tomintz M; Kingham S
  • ItemOpen Access
    Associations between food environment typologies and body mass index: Evidence from Yorkshire, England
    (Elsevier BV, 2019) Hobbs M; Green MA; Wilkins E; Lamb KE; McKenna J; Griffiths C
    International research linking food outlets and body mass index (BMI) is largely cross-sectional, yielding inconsistent findings. However, addressing the exposure of food outlets is increasingly considered as an important adult obesity prevention strategy. Our study investigates associations between baseline food environment types and change in BMI over time. Survey data were used from the Yorkshire Health Study (n=8,864; wave one: 2010-2012, wave two: 2013-2015) for adults aged 18-86. BMI was calculated using self-reported height (cm) and weight (kg). Restaurants, cafés, fast-food, speciality, convenience and large supermarkets were identified from the Ordnance Survey Point of Interest database within 1600m radial buffer of home postcodes. K-means cluster analysis developed food environment typologies based on food outlets and population density. Large supermarkets, restaurants, cafés, fast-food, speciality and convenience food outlets all clustered together to some extent. Three neighbourhood typologies were identified. However, multilevel models revealed that relative to cluster one all were unrelated to change in BMI (cluster 2, b= -0.146 [-0.274, 0.566]; cluster 3, b= 0.065 [-0.224, 0.356]). There was also little evidence of gender-based differences in these associations when examined in a three-way interaction. Policymakers may need to begin to consider multiple types of food outlet clusters, while further research is needed to confirm how these relate to changed BMI.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reconsidering the relationship between fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and body mass index: An exploratory structural equation modelling approach
    (BMJ, 2019) Hobbs M; Green M; Roberts K; Griffiths C; Mckenna J
    Background: Internationally, the prevalence of adults with obesity is a major public health concern. Few studies investigate the explanatory pathways between fast-food outlets and body mass index (BMI). We use structural equation modelling (SEM) to explore an alternative hypothesis to existing research, using area-level deprivation as the predictor of BMI and fast-food outlets and diet quality as mediators. Methods: Adults (n=7,544) from wave two of the Yorkshire Health Study provided self-reported diet, height and weight (used to calculate BMI). Diet quality was based on sugary drinks, wholemeal (whole grain) bread, and portions of fruit and vegetables. Fast-food outlets were mapped using the Ordnance Survey Points of Interest (PoI) within 2km radial buffers around home postcode which were summed to indicate availability. Age (years), gender (female/male) and longstanding health conditions (yes/no) were included as covariates. Results: There was little evidence linking fast-food outlets to diet or BMI. An independent association between fast-food outlet availability and BMI operated counterintuitively and was small in effect. There was also little evidence of mediation between fast-food outlet availability and BMI. However, there was more evidence that area-level deprivation was associated with increased BMI, both as an independent effect and through poorer diet quality. Conclusion: This exploratory study offers a first step for considering complexity and pathways linking fast-food outlets, area-level deprivation, diet quality and BMI. Research should respond to and build on the hypothesised pathways and our simple framework presented within our study.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Close proximity to alcohol outlets is associated with increased crime and hazardous drinking: Pooled nationally representative data from New Zealand
    (Elsevier BV, 2020) Hobbs M; Marek L; Wiki J; Campbell M; Deng BY; Sharpe H; McCarthy J; Kingham, Simon
    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd This nationwide study investigated the relationship between proximity to alcohol outlets (off-licence, on-licence, and other-licence) and two adverse outcomes; hazardous drinking and crime (common assault, non-aggravated sexual assault, aggravated sexual assault, and tobacco and liquor offences). After adjustment for important individual- and area-level factors, close proximity to alcohol outlets was associated with increased risk of hazardous drinking, with strong associations for on-licence outlets. Proximity alcohol outlets was also strongly associated with all crime outcomes, often with a dose-response relationship. Nationally representative New Zealand data showed that close proximity to alcohol outlets was associated with increased crime and hazardous drinking.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Slipping under the radar: worsened health outcomes in semi-urban areas of New Zealand
    (2020) Marek L; Wiki J; Campbell M; Kingham, Simon; Sabel C; Tomintz M; Hobbs M
  • ItemOpen Access
    Investigating spatial variation and change (2006–2017) in childhood immunisation coverage in New Zealand
    (Elsevier BV, 2020) Marek L; Hobbs M; McCarthy J; Wiki J; Tomintz M; Campbell M; Kingham, Simon
    Background Immunisation is a safe and effective way of protecting children and adults against harmful diseases. However, immunisation coverage of children is declining in some parts of New Zealand. Aim Use a nationwide sample to first, examine the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of immunisation coverage and spatial variation in these determinants. Second, it investigates change in immunisation coverage in New Zealand over time. Methods Individual immunisation records were obtained from the National Immunisation Register (NIR) (2005–2017; 4,482,499 events). We calculated the average immunisation coverage by year and milestone age for census area units (CAU) and then examined the immunisation coverage by selected socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Finally, local variations in the association between immunisation coverage and selected determinants were investigated using geographically weighted regression. Results Findings showed a decrease of immunisation rates in recent years in CAUs with high immunisation coverage in the least deprived areas and increasing immunisation rates in more deprived areas. Nearly all explanatory variables exhibited a spatial variation in their association with immunisation coverage. For instance, the strongest negative effect of area-level deprivation is observed in the northern part of the South Island, the central-southern part of the North Island, around Auckland, and in Northland. Conclusion Our findings show that childhood immunisation coverage varies by socioeconomic and demographic factors across CAUs. We also identify important spatial variation and changes over time in recent years. This evidence can be used to improve immunisation related policy in New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A socio-spatial analysis of pedestrian falls in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Elsevier BV, 2020) Watkins A; Curl A; Mavoa S; Tomintz M; Todd V; Dicker B
    Falls are a leading cause of injury and accidental death, particularly amongst older people. Evidence of environmental risk factors for pedestrian falls among older adults could support age-friendly urban design and contribute to efforts to reduce the incidence of pedestrian falls and support outdoor mobility among older adults. Yet investigation of the environment in which pedestrian falls occur is often hampered by its reliance on participant recall and self-report information. We identified the point locations of falls occurring on the road or street among adults that were attended by an ambulance in New Zealand over a two-year period (2016–2018) and connected these to a range of social (e.g. deprivation) and environmental (e.g. slope, greenspace) risk factors. Three types of analysis were used: a descriptive analysis of fall rates, logistic regression assessing whether a patient was transported to hospital following a fall, and a negative binomial regression analysis of the pedestrian falls by small area. We found a number of differences in the built environment surrounding fall locations between age groups. Compared with younger age groups, older adults showed high fall rates closer to home, and higher fall rates in areas with many types of destinations nearby. Additionally, our results showed a higher rate of pedestrian falls in more deprived areas. People who live in more deprived areas also fell over more frequently, but the pattern is stronger based on deprivation at the fall location, rather than home location. Residents of more deprived areas were less likely to be transported to hospital following a fall. Thus, our findings have equity implications for both environments and patient experience. These patterns could not have been identified without the novel use of spatially specific fall data.