Item Open AccessWinter Is Coming: A Socio-Environmental Monitoring and Spatiotemporal Modelling Approach for Better Understanding a Respiratory Disease(2018) Marek, Lukas; Campbell, Malcolm; Epton, Michael; Kingham, S.; Storer, M.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a progressive lung disease affecting the respiratory function of every sixth New Zealander and over 300 million people worldwide. In this paper, we explored how the combination of social, demographical and environmental conditions (represented by increased winter air pollution) affected hospital admissions due to COPD in an urban area of Christchurch (NZ).We juxtaposed the hospitalisation data with dynamic air pollution data and census data to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of hospital admissions. Spatial analysis identified high-risk health hot spots both overall and season specific, exhibiting higher rates in winter months not solely due to air pollution, but rather as a result of its combination with other factors that initiate deterioration of breathing, increasing impairments and lead to the hospitalisation of COPD patients. From this we found that socioeconomic deprivation and air pollution, followed by the age and ethnicity structure contribute the most to the increased winter hospital admissions. This research shows the continued importance of including both individual (composition) and area level (composition) factors when examining and analysing disease patterns. Item Open AccessExperiences of the Built Environment, Falls and Fear of Falling Outdoors among Older Adults: An Exploratory Study and Future Directions(MDPI AG, 2020) Curl A; Fitt H; Tomintz MFalls can have serious impacts on the health, wellbeing and daily mobilities of older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death amongst older adults and outdoor falls comprise a substantial proportion of pedestrian injuries. As well as physical injuries, the psychological impacts of experiencing a fall can result in older adults getting out of the house less often, resulting in lower levels of physical activity and social connection. Despite the known consequences of falls, relatively little research considers the impact of the urban built environment on falls among older adults. This research aimed to explore the experiences of older adults in the urban environment, falling and the fear of falling outdoors. We conducted an online survey with adults aged 50+ using a participatory mapping survey tool and a convenience sample. The study area was Greater Christchurch, New Zealand. Results suggest that both perceived accessibility and neighbourhood conditions are independently associated with fear of falling, after controlling for frequency of falling, gender and activities of daily living. Our findings demonstrate the need for much better understandings of the relationships between the urban environment, outdoor mobility, fear of falling and falling among older adults and we propose suggestions for future research. Item Open Access Item Open AccessAccessibility to food retailers and socio-economic deprivation in urban New Zealand(Wiley, 2018) Wiki, Jesse; Kingham, Simon; Campbell, MalcolmThe spatial locations of food retailers are considered to be an influential aspect of population consumption patterns. Such contextual relationships are often related to socioeconomic deprivation, with disparities in accessibility having important implications. This study used Geographic Information Systems and an Enhanced Two-Step Floating Catchment Area model of spatial accessibility to further understand such relationships within urban areas of New Zealand. Findings, while mixed, indicate that there is generally increased accessibility to all food retailers in highly deprived areas. Understanding these socio-spatial relationships in local environments has important implications for policy initiatives, health outcomes and sustainable development.