Sir Neil Isaac Scholarship

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Work from the recipients of the Sir Neil Isaac Scholarship


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  • ItemOpen Access
    The urbanisation process and attitudes towards domestic violence : a Western Samoan experience
    (1995) Cribb, Joanne
    Previous research has considered domestic violence as an isolated act of male rage. This research develops the thesis that domestic violence is an instance of social control and a symptom of a gendered construction of space. The thesis was investigated by considering the urbanisation process. Case studies undertaken in three different Western Samoan social contexts found that women were becoming increasingly accepting of domestic violence. Changes in women's attitudes towards domestic violence and changes in the construction of Western Samoan space were shown to be inter-related. The empirical results substantiated the proposed concept of domestic violence. Practical strategies and future research will have to investigate the social context within which domestic violence 1s occurring.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The coastal system of Gore Bay, North Canterbury, New Zealand
    (2003) Vessey, Emma Mary
    This thesis examines the coastal system of Gore Bay, North Canterbury, New Zealand. The coastal environment at Gore Bay has not previously been studied in depth and is poorly understood. Effective management of any coastal area requires a thorough description of the entire system, including processes, sediments and morphology. Wind and wave observations, beach profiles, sedimentary analysis, photographic evidence and archival data were used to investigate these three components and unravel the complex relationships within the Gore Bay coastal system. Gore Bay is approximately four kilometres long and comprises a mixture of both sand and gravel sized sediments. The bay is partially exposed to a high energy swell environment, with the southern end sheltered from the prevailing southerly waves. Two discrete sediment populations were identified in Gore Bay: a pebble mode at around -50 (32mm) and a sand mode at approximately +20 (0.25mm). The proportion of sand generally decreases toward the north of Gore Bay, however there is significant temporal variation in sand distribution. Average beach slope is 3.1° in the south, increasing to 8.8° due to a reduction in beach width and increase in beach height toward the north of the bay. These alongshore variations are related to the degree of exposure to the wave environment, which is more sheltered to the south. The beach in the south is backed by a scarp cut into an ancient dune field, on which the village of Gore Bay has been developed. In the north, the backshore slopes landward onto a washover surface and coastal plain, which has an ancient dune field on its landward side. The morphological response of the beach is dependent on both the characteristics of the wave environment and the distribution of sediments along Gore Bay. The sand and gravel components of the system respond separately to the process environment. Sand moves on- and off- shore as it would on a pure sand beach, while the response of the gravel is dependent upon the permeability of the beach. Beach permeability is affected by grain size, sorting and swash-backwash interactions. Due to the alongshore variation in sedimentary characteristics, the south and north of the bay respond differently to changes in wave conditions. A model of the morphodynamic behaviour of Gore Bay is presented, which takes into account the spatial and temporal variations in beach response. Gore Bay is a transitional sand and gravel beach, which shows significant variation in morphodynamics to the typical mixed sand and gravel beaches described in the published literature. The presence of a wide surf zone and the onshore-offshore cycling of sediment mean that transitional sand and gravel beaches are a discrete beach type. Management of Gore Bay therefore requires site specific investigation rather than the application of "text-book" coastal principles.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Valuing coastal blue-green infrastructure : development of a dune system assessment methodology, Ōtautahi Christchurch, New Zealand.
    (2022) Thompson, Katie
    With climate change causing an increased intensity and frequency of natural hazard events, coastal communities are realising the need for adequate adaptation to remain resilient. The limitations of traditional hard-engineered approaches as coastal protection are becoming more prevalent and evident. Recent scholarship emphasises the need for a paradigm shift towards incorporating nature into coastal adaptation, including sand dunes, salt marsh, and wetlands. Using coastal blue-green infrastructure (CBGI) as an adaption response provides a multitude of benefits that extend beyond coastal protection, though the complete CBGI values set is often not well understood or underrepresented. The low-lying delta city of Ōtautahi Christchurch, New Zealand, is at a critical point where a comprehensive approach to coastal adaption planning in a changing climate is being addressed for the first time. This process has started at a time when built infrastructure data is generally available and far more prioritised while CBGI data is relatively patchy to absent. In response, this study develops a methodology to assess the values of the New Brighton coastal sand dune system, a significant CBGI resource fringing the city’s open coast. A CBGI assessment methodology was developed through a global review of the history and different types of CBGI, while critically analysing the potential applicability of approaches to the New Brighton coastal sand dune system. A 'Nature’s Contribution to People' approach was used to develop a set of appropriate valuation methods. This methodological development and selected assessment results for the New Brighton coastal sand dune system are then explained. Key findings are that sand dunes have a multitude of values with many of them requiring a contextual measurement approach. Despite the challenges of value determination, results clearly indicate that the New Brighton coastal sand dune system needs space for migration with climate change which currently does not exist due to urban development, and further plantings of native species, such as spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) and pīngao (Ficinia spiralis), to aid with the maintenance and enhancement of its ecology, aesthetic, and protection values. This research is significant as it provides a baseline of the current dune system CBGI values for Ōtautahi, which can be used by the government and community to understand the benefits of existing CBGI as an adaptation response to climate change. It also highlights the work needed to recognise, value, enhance and further implement a nature based coastal protection approach at the core of coastal settlement climate change responses throughout New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Representing the environment : naming places in Te Wai Pounamu/the South Island
    (1999) Kirk, Kristina Marie
    Place naming is an important means by which humans attach meaning to the physical environment, making it knowable, navigable, and ultimately a 'home' place. The way in which peoples name places depends on their cultural identity, history, and the way in which they perceive their environment. Place names in the South Island/ Te Wai Pounamu reflect the cultural identities and heritages of two peoples: Ngai Tahu and European New Zealanders (Pakeha). The Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 contains provisions for 88 place name changes, which now carry dual names. The issue of reinstating indigenous place names is contentious and involves a cultural politics of place and identity. This thesis examines how people's relationships to place inform their reactions to place name changes. Secondly, the thesis explores the workings of power in place naming debates. It uses three case studies of amendments from the Settlement to achieve this. Insights from theories of place, identity and naming, especially those with a postcolonial focus are used to map out the cultural politics to which the place names speak. It is found that for Ngai Tahu, having their place names recognised is integral to the reclamation of cultural identity and authority over places lost to them under Pakeha colonisation. The thesis identifies a range of Pakeha responses to this postcolonial project to rename and reclaim. Some Pakeha are supportive. Responses of other Pakeha show resistance to this project and some people have worked explicitly to reinscribe the dominance of the Pakeha masculine subject over places and over Ngai Tahu. Other Pakeha responses are more ambiguous, in that the names are accepted but are ascribed meanings which recall colonial constructions of indigeneity. These are used in a manner disempowering for Ngai Tahu. In all, an intensely complex politics of place naming is identified, in which the power to name is not exclusively held by any one group and a multiplicity of colonial and postcolonial visions of places and identity are pitted one against the other in the battle to reclaim or retain the right to name.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Commercial wildlife viewing tourism in the South Island : a comparative analysis
    (1993) Wilson, Paula Margaret
    This thesis explores the planning and management of commercial wildlife viewing tourism. A conceptual framework was developed to aid the understanding of both the supply and demand perspectives of wildlife viewing. The characteristics and actions of the three parties involved in planning and management: the tourists, operators and administrators- were investigated in addition to the way the parties worked together to achieve the goals of tourism planning and management: stimulating economic rewards, satisfying the tourist and protecting the resources on which the tourism is based. In order to facilitate the identification of all the issues involved with this distinct type of nature based tourism eleven commercial wildlife viewing tourism operations in the South Island of New Zealand were examined which focussed on different species of both bird and marine mammals and provided a variety of viewing experiences. In terms of demand, the key point identified was the heterogeneity of wildlife viewing tourists. Variation in socio-demographic, attitudinal characteristics and the tourists' level of interest in wildlife were evident overall and between the eleven operations examined. Further examination of the tourists' level of interest in wildlife and, consequently, their socio-demographic and attitudinal characteristics revealed that a continuum of tourist types existed, from generalist to 'expert specialist' viewers. On the supply side of commercial wildlife viewing tourism, two key factors which govern the way in which the operations studied hen (and operations elsewhere in New Zealand) are planned and managed are: the type of wildlife viewed at the operation and, (for birds) the tenure of the land on which the wildlife are located. The key conservation administrator in New Zealand- the Department of Conservation (DoC)- only has influence and authority over marine mammal based operations and bird based operations which are located on protected land. Varying levels of departmental involvement in commercial wildlife viewing tourism has led to a lack of coherence in the planning and management strategies at the different operations. It is suggested that the key reasons for this lack of coherence is that wildlife viewing tourism is yet to have been recognised in New Zealand as a distinct form of nature based tourism and because there has been a lack of study which integrates the supply and demand components of the tourisnm system. The fragility of the resources upon which it depends, however, means that commercial wildlife viewing tourism needs to be the subject of specifically focussed planning and management involving key government departments such as DoC in order that it continues to stimulate economic rewards and satisfies the tourists while protecting the unique birds and mammals of New Zealand.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Making tracks : gender relations and tramping
    (1990) Bell, Karen Sarah
    Recreation research consistently reports that only one-third of trampers are likely to be females. This thesis adopts a feminist analysis to explore the factors that might explain this under-representation. This study involves indepth interviews with 90 trampers in Christchurch. In addition to documenting personal experiences of and involvements in tramping, the analysis also includes a comprehensive overview of tramping clubs in Christchurch. Four aspects of women's participation in tramping are discussed. The stereotypical image of a tramper is identified and tramper's responses to this image are considered. The actual experiences of trampers are documented. Structures and practices of tramping clubs are analysed. Finally, barriers to women's participation in tramping are explicitly discussed. Material presented in this thesis enables a clearer means of understanding both the barriers to women's involvements in tramping and is a means of encouraging their participation. In the conclusion guidelines for positive planning in the future are presented.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Ōtūkaikino River : factors contributing to apparent macroinvertebrate loss.
    (University of Canterbury, 2020) Painter, Ariana
    In recent years the Ōtūkaikino River catchment has had some of best water quality and stream health of all Christchurch rivers. However, the absence of stoneflies from macroinvertebrate surveys in 2017 indicates that all may not be well with the catchment. Given stoneflies are typically associated with high habitat and water quality, their decline or disappearance may signal stream health challenges that require further attention. A 12-month monitoring programme was created for the Ōtūkaikino River catchment to determine potential sources of pollution and habitat limitation related to this apparent decline. A range of physical, chemical and biological parameters were investigated across ten sites in the catchment in 2019 and 2020. The moderately pollution sensitive cased caddisfly Pycnocentria was a dominating taxon at many sites, though pollution tolerant Potamopurgus snails and pollution sensitive Deleatidium mayflies were also typically in high numbers. Four Zelandobius stoneflies were identified in catchment monitoring surveys in 2019, indicating that the catchment is still able to support populations of stoneflies, despite the apparent decline between 2008 and 2017. Metrics for ecological health generally increased downstream towards the middle reaches. Site scores ranged from poor ecological health (upper Waimakariri South Branch) to excellent (middle reaches). This differed to the generally good-excellent ecological health reported in 2017. Low concentrations of trace elements suggested they were generally not a key contributor to changes in ecosystem health in the Ōtūkaikino River catchment. Key exceptions were dissolved arsenic, chromium, copper and zinc at some sites. In sediment, metal concentrations were generally low, except for two headwater sites of the Waimakariri South Branch. These two sites recorded high levels of most parameters analysed, with lead and copper exceeding ANZECC (2000) interim sediment quality guidelines. Most other water quality parameters were within ANZECC (2000) water quality guidelines for ecosystem protection, with a few key exceptions. Dissolved oxygen reached low concentrations at several sites. Elevated levels of faecal coliforms were recorded in some samples, though E. coli was comparatively low. While nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were low, DRP (dissolved reactive phosphorus) was consistently elevated above ANZECC (2000) water quality guidelines at one site, as was ammoniacal nitrogen at several sites. The main factors identified in this study that contributed to this variation in macroinvertebrate community health and water quality were differences in riparian and canopy cover. They were typically highest in the middle reaches, though there were some other areas of thick vegetation. In particular, much of the upper reaches had limited mature shading plants and sediment filtering plants. Localised inputs, such as trace elements in two Waimakariri South Branch sites, were also potential contributors. Substantial planting efforts have occurred in the catchment in the last couple of decades. This study recommends that these efforts continue, with a focus on intercepting sediment and shading the waterway. Further monitoring and research in the vicinity of the two sites where high levels of trace elements were recorded is also recommended.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The recovery of functional diversity with restoration: a meta-analysis
    (University of Canterbury, 2018) Hale, Sophie Adelaide
    In light of global change, there is an increasing urgency to successfully harness restoration to safeguard biodiversity and yield resilient and functioning ecosystems. In measuring biodiversity, approaches that incorporate species’ functional traits (i.e. measures of functional diversity) are crucial in linking biodiversity with ecosystem functioning in ways richness-based measures alone cannot. However, there lacks a comprehensive global assessment of the effectiveness of restoration in the recovery of functional diversity. I conducted a meta-analysis of 30 restoration projects (freshwater and terrestrial) by extracting species lists from published studies and matching these to publicly available trait data. I compared actively and passively restored sites with degraded and pristine control sites with respect to three key measures of functional diversity (functional richness, evenness and dispersion) and two measures of species diversity (species richness and evenness). I conducted separate analyses for longitudinal studies (which monitored control and restoration 15 sites through time) and space-for-time substitutions, which compared control sites with restoration sites of different ages at one point in time. Overall, restoration appeared to be effective in space-for-time studies, with restored sites improving across multiple diversity measures over time. However, the studies that were best able to detect a difference (i.e. replicated longitudinal data) did not find sustained benefits of restoration for any measure of functional diversity, suggesting that the positive results found in space-for-time data may have been an artefact of the inability of the study design to control for regional changes across all sites. Further, active measures (i.e. guided recovery) were no more effective than passive measures (i.e. unassisted regeneration) at restoring species diversity or functional diversity. My findings on differences across study designs explain the variable results found by recent studies that directly measured the response of functional diversity to restoration, as many did not have these controls for temporal changes, whereas the study that did found no long-term effect of restoration. Further to this, functional richness and functional dispersion increased logarithmically with species richness, though this observed relationship was no different than could be expected if assemblages of species had been generated at random. Patterns were consistent across the six taxonomic groups, six ecoregions and two realms (freshwater and terrestrial) included in this work. Based on these findings, I stress the indispensability of including negative degraded controls in ongoing monitoring to distinguish the consequences of restoration efforts from unassisted temporal changes. Additionally, the failure of active restoration to outperform passive restoration suggests that allocating resources towards less intensive measures over larger areas may be a successful strategy to optimise gains for functional biodiversity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    GIS-supported simulation of the spatial behaviour of wildland fire, Cass Basin, New Zealand
    (University of Canterbury, 1996) Perry, George Leslie Whitefield
    This thesis describes the conceptualisation and development of the PYROCART model. This model simulates the spatial behaviour of fire in spatially heterogeneous environments. The principle aims of the research were to test the applicability of overseas fire spread models to New Zealand fuels, to investigate the environmental controls influencing wildland fire behaviour and to assess the applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to fire spread prediction. The PYROCART model integrates a Geographic Information System (Arc/Info) and the fire spread model of Rothermel ( 1972). The Rothermel model consists of a series of flux equations which describe the physical and chemical processes of combustion. Rate of spread is estimated to be the difference between these fluxes. A problematic limitation of this model is that it is assumed that the landscape in which the fire is being modelled is homogenous with respect to environmental descriptors such as fuel type, slope, wind speed and wind direction. The use of a cellular data model within a Geographic Information System overcomes some of the spatial limitations of the Rothermel model associated with the assumption of environmental homogeneity. The model is validated using a large wildfire which occurred on 27-28 May, 1995 on the west bank of the Cass River in the Cass Basin. This fire burnt 580 hectares across a complex vegetation mosaic comprising shrubland, stands of Nothofagus solandri var clif.fortioides, bog and tussockland. The pre-fire vegetation was mapped and fuel models were built for nine vegetation types. The topography and variation in the wind field of the fire scar were also surveyed. The overall prediction of the model is estimated to have an accuracy of 80%. Prediction accuracies within different fuel types, slopes and wind conditions are also presented and it is shown that fuel type and slope appear to be the dominant influence on fire spread. No trends in prediction accuracy by wind speed and wind direction are apparent. The predicted burned area and the real burned area have a similar overall shape. However, problems of over-prediction of backing and flanking rates of spread at high wind speeds are identified. The PYROCART model shows potential as a management tool, especially for the testing of hypotheses concerning alternative land management strategies. However, due to the complex input data and parameterisation techniques required to operate the model it is not suitable for in situ fire management.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Trialling small-scale passive systems for treatment of acidmine drainage: A case study from Bellvue Mine, WestCoast, New Zealand.
    (University of Canterbury. School of Geological Sciences, 2014) West, Rae Ann
    Bellvue Mine is an abandoned coal mine on the West Coast of the South Island which discharges severe acid mine drainage (AMD) into the nearby Cannel Creek. This site is unique in that iron is in a ferrous or reduced form at the mouth of the mine, but due to the slope of the site, the AMD becomes aerated and subsequently the iron oxidises into ferric form as it moves downstream. Research was conducted to examine the geochemistry of the AMD at the site and investigate the performance of selected passive treatment systems at this site, with a view to informing decisions for passive treatment at other comparable mines on the West Coast. A range of small-scale trial passive remediation systems were installed, including an anoxic limestone drain (ALD), a bioreactor, and two mussel shell reactors. Results from the trials showed that the mussel shell reactor treating oxidised water was the most effective at reducing the concentration of dissolved metals in the AMD. A range of factors including hydraulic residence time, geochemistry of the Bellvue Mine discharge, and unexpected equipment issues all contributed to the results of the trials, and are important factors that need to be taken into consideration when designing a full-scale system for this site and others.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Promoting sustainable management in local resource management issues
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 1994) Weastell, Lynda
    The Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 is a much discussed and frequently criticised piece of legislation in New Zealand. The RMA 1991 is much discussed because it is part of a substantial reform of New Zealand's resource management law. It is much criticised because the overall purpose of the RMA 1991 is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources (S.5(1)) but the meaning given to sustainable management in the RMA 1991 (S.5(2)) is ambiguous. These discussions and criticisms focus on the legislation. Little research on promoting sustainable management in the context of resource management practice has been undertaken so far. This research needs to be done because the context of resource management issues and the public planning process will influence how sustainable management is interpreted and applied in resource management practice. This thesis is a comparative analysis of promoting sustainable management in four local government resource management issues: the northern access road issue, Christchurch; underground coal mining at Mount Davy, Rewanui; subdivision of Travis Swamp and Kennedy's Bush Spur, Christchurch; and air access into Westland National Park. The aims of the research are to establish: how sustainable management is being promoted in resource management practice; how important the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is in determining resource management outcomes in the public planning process; and whether promoting sustainable management is resulting in a radical change in resource management practice. The thesis makes three conclusions. Firstly, that while sustainable management is an ambiguous concept a 'working' interpretation is emerging in resource management practice based on managing adverse environmental effects. Secondly, that the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is important to legitimise resource management proposals in terms of the law, but it is not the raison d'etre for these proposals. Thirdly, that promoting sustainable management has resulted in changes in the way in which resource management proposals are assessed, but there are a lot of conitunities in resource management practice despite resource management law reform.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Understanding rural decision making : a case study of land preservation in Canterbury
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 1989) Trost, P. S.
    The aim of this thesis is to clarify how the rural decision making process operates in New Zealand. This will be achieved by investigating the formal legislative restraints that land users have to adhere to and by examining the informal links that exist between the rural institutions and the land managers (eg financial, consultancy links). To investigate these formal and informal links it has been necessary to study a major land use issue. The issue selected for the study was land preservation. By using land preservation it has been possible to demonstrate how Government agencies are able to compel land users to adopt environmental land use guidelines and how private institutions are able to use negotiation to get land users to accept their land management advice. The research has found that New Zealand has a complex rural decision making framework. Unlike many overseas countries the Government can not simply impose new land use guidelines. Government agencies have to negotiate with land users before they attempt to introduce new land preservation/land management practices. The research has also revealed that private institutions play a key role in rural decision making. They have this role as a result of the consultancy services they provide to the rural sector.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Post-Disaster Mobilities: Exploring Household Relocation after the Canterbury Earthquakes
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2013) Dickinson, Simon Bernard
    During 2010 and 2011, a series of major earthquakes caused widespread damage in the city of Christchurch, New Zealand. The magnitude 6.3 quake in February 2011 caused 185 fatalities. In the ensuing months, the government progressively zoned residential land in Christchurch on the basis of its suitability for future occupation (considering damage from these quakes and future earthquake risk). Over 6,000 homes were placed in the ‘red-zone’, meaning that property owners were forced to sell their land to the Crown. This study analysed patterns of residential mobility amongst thirty-one red-zone households from the suburb of Southshore, Christchurch. Drawing on interviews and surveys, the research traced their experience from the zoning announcement until they had moved to a new residence. The research distinguished between short (before the zoning announcement) and long term (post the red zone ‘deadline’) forms of household relocation. The majority of households in the study were highly resistant to short term movement. Amongst those which did relocate before the zoning decision, the desire to maintain a valued social connection with a person outside of the earthquake environment was often an important factor. Some households also moved out of perceived necessity (e.g. due to lack of power or water). In terms of long-term relocation, concepts of affordability and safety were much more highly valued by the sample when purchasing post-quake property. This resulted in a distinct patterning of post-quake housing location choices. Perceived control over the moving process, relationship with government organisations and insurance companies, and time spent in the red-zone before moving all heavily influenced participants’ disaster experience. Contrary to previous studies, households in this study recorded higher levels of subjective well-being after relocating. The study proposed a typology of movers in the Christchurch post-disaster environment. Four mobility behaviours, or types, are identified: the Committed Stayers (CSs), the Environment Re-Creators (ERCs), the Resigned Acceptors (RAs), and the Opportunistic Movers (OMs). The CSs were defined by their immobility rather than their relocation aspirations, whilst the ERCs attempted to recreate or retain aspects of Southshore through their mobility. The RAs expressed a form of apathy towards the post-quake environment, whereas, on the other hand, the OMs moved relative to pre-earthquake plans, or opportunities that arose from the earthquake itself. Possibilities for further research include examining household adaptability to new residential environments and tracking further mobility patterns in the years following relocation from the red- zone.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Contemporary and past conditions in the Hurunui River hapua, Canterbury, New Zealand, and the potential effects of dams on this lagoon.
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2013) Mulvany, Dana
    Hapua are complex and dynamic systems, and are especially vulnerable due of their location at the end of river catchments. The Hurunui River hapua is currently under pressure from the intensification of irrigation and agriculture, and a number of dam proposals in its catchment. The purpose of this research was to investigate the current conditions in the Hurunui River hapua, how they respond to the observed range of contemporary catchment and coastal processes, and to examine of the longer-term behaviour and vulnerability of the hapua. This information was then used to make predictions on how the hapua could be impacted if dams were to be built in the catchment, or if significant changes in the catchment occur. A multidisciplinary approach was used to investigate the short-term baseline conditions, and the long-term geomorphology of the Hurunui River hapua. Water characteristics were investigated over a falling tide, in different areas of the hapua, and in different energy conditions. The short-term behaviour of the hapua was investigated using hourly images from a time-lapse camera. The long-term vulnerability over decadal time scales was analysed using aerial photographs. This study showed that the flow of the river, the shape of the hapua, and the position of the outlet has a major control over the characteristics of the water. The surface area, the position of the barrier, and the width of the barrier of the Hurunui River hapua have been variable historically. From this research, it is predicted that the greatest impact on the Hurunui hapua would result if there is a dam related change the shape and outlet of the hapua to a state that reduces water residence time and decreases water quality. It is also predicted that if the outlet is maintained at the northern end of the hapua, and no ponded areas are present, that there would be the least problems with water quality. The findings of this research have improved the understanding of the water characteristics and processes of the Hurunui River hapua, and how they respond to change.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Preventing the human time bomb : Geographies of diabetes education in New Zealand
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2004) Howes, Pamela
    This thesis examines the quality and effectiveness of diabetes education in New Zealand. It is said that a global diabetes epidemic is underway. If diabetes rates increase as predicted it will become one of the world's main public health problems. Diabetes also presents a huge burden, socially and economically to societies. Education is perhaps one of the most modifiable social determinants of health. Education is vital for diabetes, due to the importance of self care, the severity of complications that can result, to create awareness and help prevent an initial diagnosis. There are many ways in which people can receive diabetes education. One educational provider of importance, in New Zealand is Diabetes New Zealand (DNZ). DNZ is a voluntary organisation and has 41 affiliated societies across New Zealand. In order to improve diabetes educational services and help reduce the burden of diabetes in society it is necessary to gain an understanding of diabetes educational provision. Geography, with its fusion of place and people can offer a valuable contribution to the study of diabetes education. There has been a lack of attention given to public health issues by geographers. A health geography approach that incorporates the concept of place is important as it can provide insight into the way in which people experience different educational spaces. By focusing on aspects of the local environment and investigating elements of place, for example, rural and urban environments or health system organisation, another dimension to understandings of health and people's experiences within health care environments can be obtained. This thesis argues that to improve patient education and diabetes outcomes, people's perceptions and experiences within diabetes educational spaces must be investigated and understood. In addition, the extent to which diabetes educational spaces are utilised must also be explored if educational services are to be improved. The diabetes societies in New Zealand have a vital role in the provision of diabetes education for members. However, there are variations among members' perceptions and experiences within this educational space. To improve educational services, the extent to which they are utilised must also be explored. Again, it is necessary to gain an insight into the perceptions of the consumers, in relation to utilisation, to obtain a holistic understanding of diabetes educational services in New Zealand. A geographical approach to exploring the role of the voluntary sector in diabetes educational provision also provides insight into the geographies of voluntary organisations involved in diabetes education.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Past, Present and Future: Morphology and Dynamics of Rivermouth Lagoons in Westland, New Zealand
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2009) Kain, Claire Louise
    Coastal wetlands and rivermouth lagoons are dynamic systems, which respond rapidly to sea-level, tectonic, meteorological, anthropogenic and other synergistic drivers. This research used a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate two representative West Coast lagoon systems (Totara Lagoon and the Shearer Swamp-Waikoriri Lagoon Complex) in order to document their present-day geomorphology and determine the development and processes acting on these systems over historical time. This information was then used to predict their future under varying climate, development and management pressures. In addition to adding to the West Coast knowledge base, the findings of this research are applicable to similar systems elsewhere in New Zealand and internationally. This investigation used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the dynamics, structure, development and active processes in the two study systems. Techniques to document current hydrology and topography included hydrological records of water level, temperature and conductivity, and Global Navigation Satellite Surveys (GNSS). Outlet dynamics over a decadal scale were investigated through temporal aerial photograph analysis, and sediment core analyses showed changes occurring over longer timescales. Significant differences in morphology and dynamics were observed between Totara Lagoon and Waikoriri Lagoon, with the former being much larger, more stable, and less dynamic in terms of dune morphology and outlet migratory patterns. Hydrologically, Totara Lagoon is currently in an estuarine phase, and experiences significant tidal inflows, which demonstrates the connectivity between definitions of coastal lagoons and estuaries. Waikoriri Lagoon is freshwater, and can be described as a hapua-type system, but exhibits very different river flow and barrier composition to East Coast examples. Sediment core analyses from Shearer Swamp and northern Totara Lagoon showed little change over a decadal to centennial scale, but evidence of a change in margin dynamics in response to farming and stabilisation of adjacent dune ridges was observed in Shearer Swamp. Results suggest landward migration of the southern end of Totara Lagoon occurred over this timeframe. The future of these systems depends on the interaction between climate and anthropogenic (including management) factors. A conceptual model of process and response suggests three possible resultant scenarios: lagoon loss, natural lagoon, or artificially modified lagoon. A significant finding of this research is the recognition that some systems exist on a continuum between a hapua and an estuary, switching hydrological states through time while maintaining consistent morphology. In addition, the importance of barrier permeability in hapua formation is highlighted, and the term ‘sandy hapua’ introduced to distinguish these low-flow systems with low barrier permeability from the typical mixed sand and gravel examples documented on the East Coast. These findings enhance scientific understanding of rivermouth lagoon systems, and demonstrate the wide spectrum of conditions under which they may form. This process-based understanding is important from a coastal management perspective as concerns of human induced climate change and accelerated sea level rise grow.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Numerical Modelling Study of Tropical Cyclone Sidr (2007): Sensitivity Experiments Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2008) Shepherd, Tristan James
    The tropical cyclone is a majestic, yet violent atmospheric weather system occurring over tropical waters. Their majesty evolves from the significant range of spatial scales they operate over: from the mesoscale, to the larger synoptic-scale. Their associated violent winds and seas, however, are often the cause of damage and destruction for settlements in their path. Between 10/11/07 and 16/11/07, tropical cyclone Sidr formed and intensified into a category 5 hurricane over the southeast tropical waters of the northern Indian Ocean. Sidr tracked west, then north, during the course of its life, and eventually made landfall on 15/11/07, as a category 4 cyclone near the settlement of Barguna, Bangladesh. The storm affected approximately 2.7 million people in Bangladesh, and of that number 4234 were killed. In this study, the dynamics of tropical cyclone Sidr are simulated using version 2.2.1 of Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting — a non-hydrostatic, two-way interactive, triply-nested-grid mesoscale model. Three experiments were developed examining model sensitivity to ocean-atmosphere interaction; initialisation time; and choice of convective parameterisation scheme. All experiments were verified against analysed synoptic data. The ocean-atmosphere experiment involved one simulation of a cold sea surface temperature, fixed at 10 °C; and simulated using a 15 km grid resolution. The initialisation experiment involved three simulations of different model start time: 108-, 72-, and 48-hours before landfall respectively. These were simulated using a 15 km grid resolution. The convective experiment consisted of four simulations, with three of these using a different implicit convective scheme. The three schemes used were, the Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller-Janjic, and Grell-Devenyi ensemble. The fourth case simulated convection explicitly. A nested domain of 5km grid spacing was used in the convective experiment, for high resolution modelling. In all experiments, the Eta-Ferrier microphysics scheme, and the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic planetary boundary layer scheme were used. As verified against available observations, the model showed considerable sensitivity in each of the experiments. The model was found to be well suited for combining ocean-atmosphere interactions: a cool sea surface caused cyclone Sidr to dissipate within 24 hours. The initialisation simulations indicated moderate model sensitivity to initialisation time: variations were found for both cyclone track and intensity. Of the three simulations, an initialisation time 108 hours prior to landfall, was found to most accurately represent cyclone Sidr’s track and intensity. Finally, the convective simulations showed that considerable differences were found in cyclone track, intensity, and structure, when using different convective schemes. The Kain-Fritsch scheme produced the most accurate cyclone track and structure, but the rainfall rate was spurious on the sub-grid-scale. The Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme resolved realistic rainfall on both domains, but cyclone intensity was poor. Of particular significance, was that explicit convection produced a similar result to the Grell-Devenyi ensemble for both model domain resolutions. Overall, the results suggest that the modelled cyclone is highly sensitive to changes in initial conditions. In particular, in the context of other studies, it appears that the combination of convective scheme, microphysics scheme, and boundary layer scheme, are most significant for accurate track and intensity prediction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Volume Change of the Tasman Glacier Using Remote Sensing
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2008) Thomas, Joel Spencer
    Mountain glaciers are expected to be the greatest contributor to sea level rise over the next century. Glaciers provide a good indicator of global climate and how to monitor their change is an increasingly important issue for climate science and for sea level rise forecasts. However, there has been little direct measurement of glacier volume change in New Zealand. This study explores the use of remotely sensed data for measuring glacier volume change from 1965 to 2006. Digital photogrammetric methods were used to extract topographic data of the Tasman Glacier from aerial photography and ASTER imagery for the years 1965, 1986, 2002 and 2006. SRTM C band data from 2000 were also analysed. Data were compared to an existing digital elvation model produced from the New Zealand Digital Topographic Database to test for their reliability. Using regression analysis, the data were filtered and points representing rock were used to correct points on the glacier ice for vertical bias. The quality of the data extracted from the aerial photography was good on rock and debris covered ice, but poor on snow. The data extracted from ASTER was much more reliable on snow in the upper glacier than the aerial photography, but was very poor in the lower debris covered region of the glacier. While the quality of the SRTM data is very high, there is a second order distortion present in the data that is evident over elevation differences. However, the overall mean difference of the SRTM rock from TOPODATA is close to zero. An overall trend could be seen in the data between dates. However, the 2006 ASTER data proved unreliable on the debris covered section of the glacier. Total volume change is therefore calculated for the period between 1965 and 2002. The data show a loss of 3:4km³ or 0:092km³ per year, an estimated 6% of the total ice in New Zealand. This is compared to estimates using the annual end of summer snowline survey between 1977 and 2005 of 1:78 km³, or 0:064km³ per year. The spatial resolution of ASTER makes high temporal resolution monitoring of volume change unlikely for the New Zealand glaciers. The infrequency of aerial photography, the high cost and vast time involved in extracting good quality elevation data from aerial photography makes it impractical for monitoring glacier volume change remotely. However, SRTM and other radar sensors may provide a better solution, as the data do not rely heavily on user processing.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The response of stream ecosystems to riparian buffer width and vegetative composition in exotic plantation forests
    (University of Canterbury. Biological Sciences, 2006) Eivers, Rebecca
    Riparian buffers along stream margins have been widely adopted as a management strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of plantation forestry on stream ecosystems. However, the efficacy of these riparian buffers can be jeopardised by variations in width, length, and vegetation which can range from native and exotic scrub (including bracken, gorse, broom and blackberry) to remnant beech forest. This thesis investigates the influence of riparian vegetation age and composition, on stream ecosystems within exotic pine plantations. Initially, a survey of 50 streams within pine forests of various ages and riparian composition was conducted at sites from mid-Canterbury to Hanmer Springs over the summer of 2004-2005. Additionally, terrestrial subsidies were compared between young pine, mature pine and indigenous forest streams to ascertain differences or similarities between vegetation types. A range of physico-chemical and biological characteristics were recorded, while vegetative age and composition with catchment, riparian buffer and reach scales were determined using GIS. Forestry activities were found to vary temporarily and tended to adversely impact upon streams where riparian buffers were narrow and lacked indigenous vegetation. Stream instability and sedimentation were consistently higher in catchments lacking indigenous riparian vegetation, and more markedly so in recently harvested catchments compared with more mature forests. Streams dominated by pine forests had finer substrates with higher water temperatures and levels of turbidity, while those dominated by indigenous forest had coarser substrates, higher flows and dissolved oxygen levels, and less in-stream debris. Benthic community composition was similar among sites, although taxonomic richness, EPT diversity, and invertebrate abundances were enhanced by indigenous riparian vegetation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Digging the dirt on density: a study of medium density housing in Christchurch's Living Three zone
    (University of Canterbury. Geography, 2006) Lilley, Susan Jane
    Since the 1987 Brundtland Report, the development of urban areas has been considered a key determinant in achieving 'sustainability'. Greater residential density is increasingly advocated for and applied through policy statements around the world as a way of achieving this goal. Various tiers of New Zealand government are following international policy trends, developing programmes, protocols and strategies that promote sustainability and 'good' urban design practices through intensification, or concentration, within urban areas. Research shows that a policy framework of urban concentration, through greater residential density, is only successful where consumers and providers of housing support its practical application. Confrontation between policy and the market, and the acceptability of greater levels of residential density to residents, can jeopardise a policy's success. This research uses a mix of survey and interview techniques to determine the acceptability of "medium density" developments to residents, and to understand the practises and motivations of housing developers in Christchurch's "Living 3" zone. This zone is predominantly sited between the central business district and low-density suburban areas, making it ideally located to facilitate policies of intensification. The principle purpose of the zone is the development of medium-density residential accommodation, however greater residential density is relatively new to Christchurch where the potential for expansion is seemingly unbounded. The intention of this research is to assist the planning, production and performance of future developments. In conclusion, this thesis makes recommendations to improve the form and design of medium density residential developments in Christchurch's inner Living Three zone in terms of the market's producers and consumers.