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  • ItemOpen Access
    Clean Sky 2 - Nacelle cowl NExt generation Opening System (NNEOS) - Final Public Report
    (European Commision, 2022) Novillo E
    Executive summary: NNEOS project aims to develop an innovative nacelle cowl opening system based on electromechanical actuation compatible with the high temperature environment of the new Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines. This deliverable main purpose is to disseminate the results of the tests and the final conclusions of the project.
  • ItemOpen Access
    South Island Fernbird (Bowdleria punctata) Reintroduction Plan
    (School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, 2005) Shadbolt, Antony B.
    South Island fernbirds (Bowdleria punctata) (Figure 1) have been locally extinct in the Christchurch area since about 1898, however the Christchurch City Council (CCC) is currently exploring the possibility of reintroducing them to a number of sites around the city where habitat restoration and predator control measures are in place. Sites under consideration include the Bexley Wetlands, Travis Wetland, Styx Mill Conservation Reserve, Nga Puna Wai Reserve, Riccarton Bush, Brooklands Lagoon and the 80+ hectare area of saltmarsh at the mouth of the Styx/Puharakekenui River (Crossland pers comm. 2005), herein referred to as the Puharakekenui Wetlands. This reintroduction plan focuses on the establishment of a viable fernbird population at the Puharakekenui Wetlands. However this reintroduction event is set in the context of a city/region wide meta-population establishment program that may include some or all of the sites listed above, and also sites outside the CCC area such as, Quail Island (Norton et al. 2001) and Kaitorete Spit (Crossland pers comm 2005). Although the problems associated with restoration of native bird communities are daunting, and especially so in mainland situations, it is exciting that such proposals are even being considered (Saunders 1995). Returning animals to the wild evokes an extremely positive response from almost all sectors of the community (Serena and Williams 1995), and therefore the reintroduction of fernbird back into the Christchurch area not only has conservation value for the species itself, but also heightens awareness of conservation values in general.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The thalamic reuniens is associated with consolidation of non-spatial memory too
    (2023) Hamilton JJ; Dalrymple-Alford, John
    The nucleus reuniens (RE) is situated in the midline thalamus and provides a key link between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This anatomical relationship positions the Re as an ideal candidate to facilitate memory consolidation. Evidence is, however, lacking whether this role extends beyond spatial memory and contextual fear memory, both of which are strongly associated with hippocampal function. We therefore trained intact male Long-Evans rats on an odour-trace-object paired-association task in which the explicit 10-second delay between paired items renders the task sensitive to hippocampal function. Neurons in the RE showed markedly increased immediate early gene (Zif268) activation when rats were re-tested for the previous non-spatial memory 25 days after acquisition training, relative to a group tested at 5-days post-acquisition, as well as a control group tested 25 days after acquisition but with a new pair of non-spatial stimuli, and home cage controls. The remote recall group also showed relatively augmented IEG expression in the superficial layers of the medial PFC (anterior cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex). These findings support the conclusion that the RE is preferentially engaged during remote recall in this non-spatial task and thus has a role beyond spatial memory and contextual fear memory.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Virtual field trips in tertiary science
    (Ako Aotearoa, 2018) Jolley A; Sommerville P; Reyna N; Hampton S; Dawood M; Ashwell P; Hersey S; Davies A; Kennedy, Ben; Stahl, Timothy; Wilson, Thomas; Brogt, Erik; Pedley, Katherine; Davidson, Jonathan
    Field trips are one of the most critical pieces of learning for students in sciences like geology, biology, and geography. Virtual field trips (VFT) are being increasingly considered as sophisticated and effective forms of teaching, especially with the rise of new technologies and the growing demand for more inclusive classroom environments. This research developed a virtual field trip for Tertiary students in an introductory-level geology course (GEOL 113: Environmental Geohazards) at the University of Canterbury. This initiative was in partnership with LEARNZ – a highly esteemed virtual fieldtrip team run by CORE Education that creates successful VFTs for Primary and Secondary students in New Zealand. Key components of the Tertiary VFT include a student acting as the virtual field trip teacher interviewing experts and leading the field trip, web-based background material, online assessment, and photos. In two successive academic years, students participated in the VFT during lectures and as pre class assignments prior to a one-day earthquake hazards workshop. In 2016, the virtual field trip used the LEARNZ web platform and occurred synchronously with the class; in 2017 the virtual fieldtrip reused the video, images and word documents from the previous year with the addition of a Google Earth component and with no reliance on the LEARNZ web platform. The goals of the trip were designed to prepare students for the earthquake hazards workshop, in which students analysed earthquake impacts over varying timescales and then applied that knowledge to develop strategies for the recovery of three crucial industries (dairy, mining, or tourism) on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. In both years, number of clicks data showed that students interacted with online material far more during this week of the course than any other. Following the synchronous version in 2016, the students who were surveyed reported (1) they enjoyed the trip, (2) they found background material useful for preparation for the trip and the workshop, and (3) the additional work was at the appropriate level. Despite predominantly positive responses from the students, we experienced some negative feedback from participating staff mainly associated with stress and technical difficulties in running the synchronous VFT. With the asynchronous trip in 2017, staff reported a highly positive overall experience, with a perceived enhanced interaction with class during lecture time, and an increased and enhanced engagement with course material outside of class. The student survey again showed that the majority of students surveyed enjoyed the virtual fieldtrip, and that it was useful preparation for the workshop. Additionally, they reported an improved link between earth processes and society, which was a key overarching aim for the course. We propose that the synchronous version poses more excitement and immersion in the field environment, whereas the reuse of the asynchronous version increases the utility (and hence value for money) of the trip, and minimises technical difficulties and lecturer stress. Additionally, re-using the material in the asynchronous version offered opportunities to improve and supplement the past content, such as the incorporation of following an annotated trip path in Google Earth. As recommendations for others interested in developing virtual fieldtrips, we report that the design of a virtual fieldtrip should include (1) Goal-aligned content and assessment for both practice and marks, (2) a student and instructor experience that is authentic and flexible to both the people and the place. We suggest that these aims can be achieved whatever the budget or timeframe and make our material freely available at
  • ItemOpen Access
    Te Nohonga Kaitiaki Guidelines for Genomic Research on Taonga Species
    (Te Kotahi Research Institute, 2021) Hudson M; Thompson A; Wilcox P; Mika J; Battershill C; Stott M; Brooks RT; Warbrick L
    The Te Nohonga Kaitiaki guidelines apply to genomic research involving taonga species. Despite Te Tiriti o Waitangi affirming Māori rights over taonga, the application of these rights to biological samples and data has generally been overlooked within the sciences. The ease of access to genomic technologies has resulted in widespread proliferation of research, and increasing access for the scientific community as well as tertiary and secondary educational institutions. To date there has been little guidance in place to ensure that taonga species are being approached in a manner that upholds Treaty principles, or specific guidance on how this can be done effectively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Autistic co-led autism research priorities for Aotearoa New Zealand
    (2022) Emerson, Lisa Marie; Monk, Ruth; van der Meer, Larah; McLay, Laurie
    Participatory research seeks to meaningfully include the viewpoints of the community that the research seeks to serve. In the UK and Australia, consortiums have utilised a participatory research framework to integrate the views of Autistic people, their families, researchers and clinicians, in the co-production of autism research prioritie
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reference levels for short duration signals used in Auditory Brainstem Response testing: An overview in the New Zealand context.
    (2022) Maslin, Michael; O'Beirne, Greg
    The Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) is an electrophysiological response used for objective hearing testing. A sound is played in the ear to stimulate nerves in the brain, and the nerve activity is then measured. The technique is particularly important for testing the hearing of infants and children as the process is relatively automatic. In New Zealand, the sounds delivered by ABR devices are calibrated to different levels than devices used in most places around the world. This is because New Zealand uses a non-standard calibration reference while other regions around the world are increasingly using a standardised calibration reference, published in ISO 389. The different references mean that hearing test results and their interpretation will also differ from those performed overseas, and are not able to be easily compared to published data. No set of reference levels are objectively right or wrong. The purpose of standardisation is to offer a common approach in order to avoid differences in sound levels across regions and across transducers like insert earphones and bone conductors in widespread use. Only with standardisation can valid comparisons be made in routine clinical as well as research activities. However, it is worth adding that in addition to reference levels being non-standard in New Zealand, the research from which they were derived has not been fully published and we believe the values contain an unexplained anomaly. Further compounding this issue, the techniques used to calibrate ABR devices are also non-standard, which has resulted in hitherto unrecognised errors. The New Zealand reference levels are sufficiently different from the standardised reference levels to cause real-world human and financial implications. For example, the higher levels used with insert earphones can cause an apparent reduction in the severity of a hearing loss, and thus differences in the way a hearing aid might be set up for anyone diagnosed with a hearing loss. Given that standardised reference levels are available via ISO 389, and given that following this standard would enable alignment of clinical and research activities in New Zealand and internationally (and alignment within New Zealand across transducers and stimuli), the rationale for continuing with non-standard calibration referencesis unclear. To resolve these problems, we recommend that New Zealand adopts the standardised reference levels in ISO 389, and the associated techniques for calibration of ABR devices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Getting Around Survey 2021: OCHT Brougham St.
    (2022) Fitt H; Curl A; el Orfi Y; Dares C; Russel E; Kingham, Simon
    Transport and housing are very closely linked. Where you live influences the things you can do and where you can go. This can affect your health and wellbeing. ŌCHT has put shared cars and e-bikes in your community. We’ll repeat our survey next year to see whether using the cars and bikes has led to any changes in your life. This year’s results are about how things were before most people had used the shared cars and bikes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Aotearoa New Zealand climate change projections guidance: Interpreting the latest IPCC WG1 report findings
    (2022) Bodeker G; Tait A; Morgenstern O; Noone D; Revell L; McDonald A; Cullen N; Renwick J; Katurji, Marwan
  • ItemOpen Access
  • ItemOpen Access
    Understanding the motivations of fleeing drivers: Media influences
    (NZ Police, 2021) Westerman A; Gore A; Kaiwai H; Cording, Jacinta
    The New Zealand Police (‘NZ Police’) contracted the research team to deliver two pieces of research on fleeing driver events. The focus of this report is on the first piece of research, which aimed to identify and outline the motivations, circumstances and decision-making processes that are reported by individuals who have fled from Police, and their passengers. These pieces of research fit within a broader programme of research being undertaken by NZ Police on fleeing driver events. The purpose of this programme of research is to better understand the facilitators and factors involved in fleeing driver events, with the view to ensuring that Police chase policy fits with the empirical evidence for how Police chases are best conducted to keep drivers, Police, and the wider community safe.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Understanding the motivations of fleeing drivers: Individual factors
    (NZ Police, 2021) Gore A; Westerman A; Kaiwai H; Cording, Jacinta
    The New Zealand Police (‘NZ Police’) contracted the research team to deliver two pieces of research on fleeing driver events. The focus of this report is on the first piece of research, which aimed to identify and outline the motivations, circumstances and decision-making processes that are reported by individuals who have fled from Police, and their passengers. These pieces of research fit within a broader programme of research being undertaken by NZ Police on fleeing driver events. The purpose of this programme of research is to better understand the facilitators and factors involved in fleeing driver events, with the view to ensuring that Police chase policy fits with the empirical evidence for how Police chases are best conducted to keep drivers, Police, and the wider community safe.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the Family Violence Courts
    (Ministry of Justice, 2021) Wheatley P; Kaiwai H; Cording, Jacinta
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the Family Start programme: Synthesis of process and impact evaluation findings
    (Oranga Tamariki, 2021) Carter M; Preval N; Apatov E; Potter H; Frost-Kruse O; Scanlen A; Waru N; Fehoko E; Subedi K; Cording, Jacinta
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factitious disorder imposed on another: Literature scan
    (Oranga Tamariki, 2021) Carter M; Cording, Jacinta
    Purpose The purpose of this literature scan is to provide up-to-date information on what is known about children and young people affected by Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another (FDIA; previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). It is hoped that this literature scan will contribute to kaimahi being able to articulate the importance of safety-organised assessment and planning when working with affected families or whānau. This is particularly important in assessing the ability of affected families and whānau to achieve safety into the future, as agencies and others step back. As such, this literature scan has multiple intended uses: • to be shared with kaimahi as required • to inform professional practice responses to requests for assistance when Oranga Tamariki has kaimahi working with families or whānau where FDIA may be present • to know more about this area to inform future policy and practice work. The intended audience for this work is social work practitioners working in care and protection, specifically kaimahi across Oranga Tamariki. The focus is on what is needed for the safety of children and young people experiencing FDIA.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A theory of change informed pre-/post-course mixed-methods evaluation of the Toolbox parenting courses. An evaluation research report for the Parenting Place
    (2020) Friesen, Myron
    As a follow-up to the 2018 Toolbox retrospective study and the development of the Theory of Change Model for Toolbox, the research and evaluation team designed a small evaluation and customer satisfaction survey for all participants to complete at the beginning (first session or before) of the Toolbox course and at the end of the course (last session). The purpose of this report is to describe the results from these surveys for all data collected in 2019. The surveys in this study were specifically designed to assess parent self-reports of changes in parenting and family life according to three of the variables identified in the Toolbox Theory of Change; including relationship quality, parental efficacy, and family atmosphere. A fourth variable, parenting anxiety, was also added due to recent observations from Toolbox and Space facilitators about parents’ who seemed quite anxious about their ability to adequately address concerns about their children and home life. This analysis of the full-year data had the following objectives: (a) Assess parents’ perceptions of change across the variables from the Toolbox Theory of Change, including parent-child and family relationships, parental efficacy, parenting anxiety, and family climate. (b) Examine potential moderating factors that might help explain individual differences in change over time (e.g., parenting anxiety). (c) Assess participants’ post-course reflections on the quality of course information and facilitator preparedness and competence. (d) Assess participants’ post-course reflections on their general satisfaction with the course, their key learnings and applications, and their recommendations for change. A custom survey was designed and distributed to the majority of Toolbox participants. Due to the potentially limited time available to complete the survey (i.e., just prior starting or just after completing a course session), it was intentionally brief, with each measure incorporating only a few individual items. Quantitative items were based on a 5-point Likert scale or were dichotomised (Yes/No). Estimates of internal reliability were generally acceptable, but were uniformly better at the pre-course assessment. Test-retest correlations were modest. reported statistically significantly lower relationship concerns, improved parental efficacy, and decreased parenting anxiety from pre- to post-course assessments, with moderately strong effect sizes. Parents’ who scored higher on parenting anxiety had more relationship concerns, lower parental efficacy, along with a less positive and more negative home environments. As hypothesized, these main effects were qualified by significant interactions in each of these analyses. Parents who had greater parenting anxiety at the start of the course showed greater change from preto post-course across all four outcomes compared to the parents who reported less parenting anxiety. Analyses of open-response questions showed that the vast majority of parents highly regarded their Toolbox course experience and spontaneously identified learning outcomes that corresponded with those in the Toolbox Theory of Change, including improved communication, perspective taking, use of behaviour management and boundaries, understanding parenting styles and learning new parenting skills, prioritizing
  • ItemOpen Access
    Response to the policy question “How can innovation in the way we use information and emerging technologies help biodiversity thrive?”
    (2021) Heinemann, Jack
    The challenge is to identify solutions to problems, not just participate in a process that shifts harm and defers solutions. Our response is provided in the spirit of wanting to help to restore and sustain “the mauri (life force) of nature.” Innovation is clearly needed to achieve this objective, but so is learning from past mistakes. The problems caused by many exotic plants and animals in AotearoaNew Zealand are themselves the outcomes of past innovations. For example, stoats were introduced as a biocontrol of rabbits2 that were introduced for food, sport and fur.3 These innovations were not called biotechnology, but were consistent with how we define it today because they were attempts to modify ecosystems to suit particular agricultural uses or to mitigate the impacts of those modifications. 4 Both information and biotechnology can be powerful tools when applied to understanding the causes of harm to biodiversity, monitoring and identifying the source of harm, and informing strategic approaches to limiting or eliminating adverse effects on native organisms. When used in a precisely defined framework that emphasises the value of biotechnology as an information provider, rather than a way to intervene in nature, it can be used safely with little risk that future generations will be correcting mistakes, as we are correcting the mistakes of generations that preceded us.