Item Open AccessReparability of earthquake damaged Reinforced Concrete walls(2019) Munoz, Gonzalo; Henry, Rick; Elwood, KenThe 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes generated damage in several Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings, which had RC walls as the principal resistant element against earthquake demand. Despite the agreement between structural engineers and researchers in an overall successfully performance there was a lack of knowledge about the behaviour of the damaged structures, and even deeper about a repaired structure, which triggers arguments between different parties that remains up to these days. Then, it is necessary to understand the capacity of the buildings after the earthquake and see how simple repairs techniques improve the building performance. This study will assess the residual capacity of ductile slender RC walls according to current standards in New Zealand, NZS 3101.1 2006 A3. First, a Repaired RC walls Database is created trying to gather previous studies and to evaluate them with existing international guidelines. Then, an archetype building is designed, and the wall is extracted and scaled. Four half-scale walls were designed and will be constructed and tested at the Structures Testing Laboratory at The University of Auckland. The overall dimensions are 3 [m] height, 2 [m] length and 0.175 [m] thick. All four walls will be identical, with differences in the loading protocol and the presence or absence of a repair technique. Results are going to be useful to assess the residual capacity of a damaged wall compare to the original behaviour and also the repaired capacity of walls with simpler repair techniques. The expected behaviour is focussed on big changes in stiffness, more evident than in previously tested RC beams found in the literature. Item Open AccessUnderstanding disaster risk exposure to visitors to the South Island of New Zealand(2019) Darling, Mathew; Wilson, Thomas; Bradley, Brendon; Orchiston, Caroline; Adams, BenUnderpinning strong disaster risk reduction initiatives are representative disaster risk assessments of communities, regions or nations. Often risk modelling focuses on understanding the physical hazard and its spatial extent; however, it often draws on old or static population datasets. We consider geospatial and big data methods to understanding fluctuations in populations, to ultimately better inform disaster risk assessments. This is particularly relevant in areas of both significant fluctuations in population movement (through tourism), and high disaster risk. We consider the case study of the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand. The initial findings of this research draw on the case study of Rakiura, Stewart Island, where the total fluctuations in the population are known (though passenger movements through the Foveaux Strait), and we compare these to more novel indicators; such as infrastructure load, social media data, and visitor counter networks. We then consider how such indicators are applicable at a regional national scale to understand fluctuations in population movement, to better inform disaster risk modelling. Item Open AccessCommunity science as a tool for increased disaster resilience(2019) McLaren, Lisa; Johnston, David; Hudson-Doyle, Emma; Becker, Julia; Beatson, AbiThe research explores how community science can be used as a tool for building resilience to disaster events. It presents a framework for hazard scientists and practitioners to use if they want to build more citizen participation into their research design. It also highlights how different types of hazard research projects are already utilising citizen engagement in data collection and analysis. A thematic analysis of literature was undertaken on both citizen science and community resilience as concepts. Comparisons were made between citizen science project design themes and three community resilience enablers; informal disaster education, community participation, and trust. Item Open AccessStrong Ground Motions Simulations for Dunedin: recent progress(2019) Kowal, Anna; Stirling, Mark; Gorman, Andrew; Wotherspoon, LiamWe present our on-going QuakeCoRE-funded work on strong motion seismology for Dunedin–Mosgiel area, focusing on ground motion simulations for the Dunedin Central Business District (CBD). Source modelling and ground motion simulations are being carried out using the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Simulation Platform (SCEC BBSP). As large earthquakes have not been experienced in Dunedin in the time period of historical observation (since 1840), user-specified scenario simulations need to be developed. The sources considered for ground motion simulations include major active faults near Dunedin that have been the foci of recent paleoseismic studies (Akatore, Titri, Dunstan and Hyde faults), along with the distant Alpine Fault source. Current work and ongoing goals focus on modelling non-linear site effects. Seismic site effects are related to the amplification of seismic waves in surficial geological layers. We are presently undertaking site response analysis for ground motion simulations via nonlinear total stress and effective stress 1D wave propagation methods.. The simulated, amplified motions are compared against recorded events from strong motion stations in the city centre and southern Dunedin to quantify the amplification characteristics of soil sites relative to rock sites. These recorded events are also being applied to simulation validations. Our work will soon progress to undertaking ground motion simulations that utilize a 3D shear-wave velocity model for the greater Dunedin-Mosgiel area. Item Open AccessCONSPICUOUS INVISIBILITY in Disaster Risk Reduction(2019) Gray, Lesley; Becker, Julia; MacDonald, Carol; Johnston, DavidBackground: People with very high body mass (extreme obesity) have been left behind in disasters (Gray, 2017). However, disaster risk reduction (DRR) considerations are not visible in literature to understand risk, adaptive capacities and concerns (Gray & MacDonald, 2016). Method: Semi-structured interviews with up to 20 people who have extreme obesity in Aotearoa about their experiences in disasters, plans and preparedness. Interviews are audio recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. Results: Initial analysis suggests size, shape, weight and age of participants in this study are no proxy for health, mobility or preparedness status. There were shared concerns regarding assistance requirements in the event of a fall or becoming trapped. Other themes relate to replacement clothing, evacuation centre facilities, and the expectation that emergency management will plan and be prepared for their particular needs in the community. Other than routine General Practice visits, participants felt their DRR needs associated with high body mass would not be flagged with any health agency and less mobile participants were unclear if they were registered ‘disabled’ with any agencies. Discussion: Earlier research found some emergency managers, planners and responders (EMs) felt that health agencies would advise specific needs of people with extreme obesity, yet this research suggests that cannot not be assumed. Other EMs questioned the need to consider this population and yet participants did feel their EMs should have some knowledge and have planned for their needs. Such mis-alignment needs further exploration given the high levels of extreme obesity in Aotearoa (MoH, 2017). Item Open AccessTrust to new seismic-proofing technologies: The influential factors(2019) Zarinkamar, Shermineh; Poshdar, Mani; Quenneville, Pierre; Wilkinson, SuzanneEarthquakes cause serious damages to the economy of the impacted regions. Many new methods and technologies have been introduced into the construction industry with the aim of reducing the consequences of earthquake damages and their associated repair costs. Still, the low level of trust towards these new technologies poses a significant challenge in adopting them. An enhanced understanding of the factors that affect the trust in the newly introduced the low damage seismic-proofing technologies (SPTs) can play a crucial role in designing policies to leverage their adoption. This study identifies the factors of trust in adopting an innovative low damage SPT, namely the Resilient Slip Friction Joint (RSFJ) as a representative of novel new technologies. This technology has been introduced to the New Zealand construction industry in 2016 and provides seismic energy dissipation and the ability to return the structure to the pre-earthquake position after the event in one compact package. The data collection stage involved an online survey of three groups of respondents from the New Zealand construction industry including clients, contractors, and consultants. More than 80 responses were collected from different sectors of the industry comprising architects, structural engineers, planners, quantity surveyors and project managers. The survey questions approached the trust factors from different angles, such as organizational and project characteristics. The findings of this research can help to improve and develop a path to facilitate the uptake of new Seismic proofing technologies. Item Open AccessA Value Case for Seismic Isolation of Residential Buildings(2019) Francis, Tom; Sullivan, Timothy; Filiatrault, AndreSeismic isolation is an effective technology for significantly reducing damage to buildings and building contents. However, its application to light-frame wood buildings has so far been unable to overcome cost and technical barriers such as susceptibility to movement during high-wind loading. The precursor to research in the field of isolation of residential buildings was the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (6.7 MW) in the United States and the 1995 Kobe Earthquake (6.9 MW) in Japan. While only a small number of lives were lost in residential buildings in these events, the economic impact was significant with over half of earthquake recovery costs given to repair and reconstruction of residential building damage. A value case has been explored to highlight the benefits of seismically isolated residential buildings compared to a standard fixed-base dwellings for the Wellington region. Loss data generated by insurance claim information from the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake has been used by researchers to determine vulnerability functions for the current light-frame wood building stock. By further considering the loss attributed to drift and acceleration sensitive components, and a simplified single degree of freedom (SDOF) building model, a method for determining vulnerability functions for seismic isolated buildings was developed. Vulnerability functions were then applied directly in a loss assessment using the GNS developed software, RiskScape. Vulnerability was shown to dramatically reduce for isolated buildings compared to an equivalent fixed-base building and as a result, the monetary savings in a given earthquake scenario were significant. This work is expected to drive further interest for development of solutions for the seismic isolation of residential dwellings, of which one option is further considered and presented herein. Item UnknownThe Equivalent Ductility approach for designing the structures using Resilient Slip Friction Joints (RSFJs)(2019) Hashemi, Ashkan; Bagheri, Hamed; Beik, Seyed Modammad; Zarnani, Pouyan; Quenneville, PierreThe innovative Resilient Slip Friction Joint (RSFJ) technology has recently been developed and introduced to the New Zealand construction industry. The RSFJ is a friction-based energy dissipation device that provides the required seismic performance regardless of the material used for the main structural components. It can be used in various lateral load resisting systems including (but are not limited to) shear walls, rocking columns, tension-compression braces, tension-only braces and moment resisting frames. The performance of the RSFJ technology has previously been verified by joint component testing and full-scale experimental tests. Different design codes around the world have different approaches to determine the design seismic loads yet most of them recommend to reduce the elastic base shear by a factor that is related to the ductility. Most of the codes recommend ductility-related values for different types of conventional structures based on the type of lateral load resisting system and the material used. Nevertheless, there is still lack of information about the seismic design of buildings with more advanced technologies such as RSFJ. This research aims to provide a simple analysis and design procedure for the structural engineers when designing a seismic resilient building with RSFJs. A step-by-step forced-based design procedure is provided that generally requires the use of the Equivalent Static Method (ESM) to specify the structural design actions followed by non-linear static pushover and non-linear dynamic time-history simulations to verify the performance. In this procedure, the designer adopts a force reduction factor at the start and verifies it at the end. A case-study structure that uses RSFJ braces as the lateral load resisting members is considered to explain and follow the proposed design procedure. Item UnknownHybrid Broadband Ground Motion Simulation Validation of New Zealand Earthquakes with an Updated 3D Velocity Model and Modified Simulation Methodology(2019) Lee, Robin; Bradley, BrendonOver the past 30 years there has been significant research to advance physics-based ground motion simulations via improvement of the simulation methodologies, and refinement of earthquake source, crustal velocity, and site effects modelling. Comprehensive validation of such simulations is essential to quantify improvements in their predictive capabilities, understand limitations, and identify pathways for further improvement. This poster presents the results of ground motion simulation validation using small-to-moderate magnitude () earthquake events across New Zealand with: (1) an improved 3D crustal velocity model, which includes additional sedimentary basins and better representation of the near-surface velocity structure; and (2) a modified version of the Graves and Pitarka (2015) hybrid broadband methodology, which uses an improved high-frequency path duration model and reduced low-frequency site amplification. Results are compared with simulations using a benchmark crustal velocity model and the unmodified Graves and Pitarka (2015) methodology, and using a range of ground motion intensity measures as summary statistics. Across the entire dataset (i.e. all earthquake events and recording stations), it was found that the modified simulations had less overprediction bias than the ‘unmodified’ methodology at both short and long response spectral periods. Interrogation of partitioned residuals, from mixed-effects regression, highlights the need for improved Vs30 estimates, consideration of topographic effects, and spatially variable stress parameter – all of which are being considered in an iterative cycle of model improvement. Item UnknownThe Effectiveness of Retrofit Technologies in Wooden-Framed Houses in Wellington(2019) Miranda, Catalina; Raftery, Gary; Toma, Charlotte; Johnston, DavidNew Zealand has a long tradition of using light timber frame for construction of its domestic dwellings. After the most recent earthquakes (e.g. Canterbury earthquakes sequence), wooden residential houses showed satisfactory life safety performance. However, poor performance was reported in terms of their seismic resilience. Although numerous innovative methods to mitigate damage have been introduced to the New Zealand community in order to improve wooden house performance, these retrofit options have not been readily taken up. The low number of retrofitted wooden-framed houses leads to questions about whether homeowners are aware of the necessity of seismic retrofitting their houses to achieve a satisfactory seismic performance. This study aims to explore different retrofit technologies that can be applied to wooden-framed houses in Wellington, taking into account the need of homeowners to understand the risk, likelihood and extent of damage expected after an event. A survey will be conducted in Wellington about perceptions of homeowners towards the expected performance of their wooden-framed houses. The survey questions were designed to gain an understanding of homeowners' levels of safety and awareness of possible damage after a seismic event. Afterwards, a structural review of a sample of the houses will be undertaken to identify common features and detail potential seismic concerns. The findings will break down barriers to making improvements in the performance of wooden-framed houses and lead to enhancements in the confidence of homeowners in the event of future seismic activity. This will result in increased understanding and contribute towards an accessible knowledge base, which will possibly increase significantly the use of these technologies and avoid unnecessary economic and social costs after a seismic event. Item Open AccessQuantifying the seismic risk for electric power distribution systems(2019) Yang Liu, Leo; Wotherspoon, Liam; Nair, Nirmal; Blake, DanielElectric power distribution systems are generally more prone to disruption from natural hazards than transmission systems due to their often less redundant circuit structures. However, seismic risk analysis for distribution systems is rare compared to the rich body of literature focusing on transmission systems. This paper proposes a seismic risk assessment framework for electric power distribution systems considering both the network topology and the functional vulnerability of distribution substations. Implicit Z-bus method is applied to solve distribution system power flow and evaluate system serviceability. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to obtain probabilities of the scale of unserved loads resulting from disconnection and abnormal voltage condition. The seismic risk is jointly quantified using multiple risk metrics, and importance measures are used to determine criticality of substation components for prioritisation of seismic retrofit. The seismic risk assessment framework is applied to the CIGRE medium voltage distribution test network and two ground motion intensity scenarios – one for peak ground acceleration values based on a scenario earthquake and the other for uniformly distributed peak ground acceleration across the network. The framework allows the quantification of different network topologies and substation configurations. This enables network owners and operators to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of their substation configuration and network topology, identify potential bottlenecks of the systems and thus inform effective planning and risk-reduction investments. Item Open AccessCapturing impacts, experiences, and behaviour during disaster: An online participation and crowdsourcing approach for resilience(2019) Harrison, SaraDeveloping a holistic understanding of social, cultural, and economic impacts of disasters can help in building disaster risk knowledge for policy making and planning. Many methods can help in developing an understanding of the impacts of a disaster, including interviews and surveys with people who have experienced disaster, which may be invasive at times and create stress for the participants to relive their experiences. In the past decade, social media, blog posts, video blogs (i.e. “vlogs”), and crowdsourcing mechanisms such as Humanitarian OpenStreetMap and Ushahidi, have become prominent platforms for people to share their experiences and impacts of an event from the ground. These platforms allow for the discovery of a range of impact information, from physical impacts, to social, cultural, and psychological impacts. It can also reveal interesting behavioural information such as their decision to heed a warning or not, as people tend to share their experiences and their reactions online. This information can help researchers and authorities understand both the impacts as well as behavioural responses to hazards, which can then shape how early warning systems are designed and delivered. It can also help to identify gaps in desired behavioural responses. This poster presents a selection of cases identified from the literature and grey literature, such as the Haiti earthquake, the Christchurch earthquake, Hurricane Sandy, and Hurricane Harvey, where online platforms were widely used during and after a disaster to document impacts, experiences, and behavioural responses. A summary of key learnings and areas for future research is provided. Item Open AccessConceptualising a disaster app: consolidating public alerting authorities’ social media and broadcast messages(2019) Tan, Marion; Prasanna, Raj; Stock, Kristin; Hudson-Doyle, Emma; Leonard, Graham; Johnston, DavidMultiple agencies in New Zealand are mandated to warn the public of risks, hazards, or emergencies. The agencies have a plethora of public alerting options; including the capability to deliver alerts to the public through mobile devices. The options directed to mobile devices currently available in New Zealand include SMS-text message, phone calls, and more recently, social media, smartphone applications (apps), and broadcast messaging. Each of these new technological options has its strengths but also has its weaknesses. The prototype app proposed in this poster tries to address some of the challenges posed by these various mobile delivery options. Apps can be useful platforms for communicating localised and time-critical information. The proposed app targets citizens as end-users and tries to aggregate information from authorised agencies. Apps can contribute to the public’s disaster resilience; however, they can also be impractical if not designed according to users’ needs. In this study, a usability inquiry was conducted with 18 members of the public to understand their perspectives, needs, and expectations from a disaster app. The proposed app received an overall positive response from participants. Moreover, the results from the inquiry with the users showcased particular considerations for disaster apps; such as making critical information salient, reducing cognitive load, and leveraging usability to build trust between the app and the user. Item Open AccessSmart Resilient Cities(2019) Lambie, Emily; Campbell, Emily; Johnston, David; Elwood, Ken; Stephens, Max; Uma, SR; Prasanna, Raj; Becker, Julia; Rangika, Nilani; Syed, Yasir Imtiaz; Hudson-Doyle, Emma; Hopkins, JohnEmerging technology and data processing tools are transforming the cities we live in, and the way we live in them. Understanding the confluence of trends and evolving relationship between people, systems and data is key to designing for resilience in an equitable way. Globally, the Smart Cities model uses open and shared data to better understand local vulnerabilities and inform development decisions as well as the operation of physical and service infrastructure. Smart Resilient Cities is a research project which will explore how we can best use emerging technology for Disaster Risk Reduction. The aim is to understand the use of sustainable and low cost: • State of the art sensors capable of maintaining the sensing ability of a city/region before, during and after an big disaster • Wired and wireless communication platform linking smart sensors before, during and after a big disaster • End-user accepted and trusted technology application covering users’ needs for gauging human and infrastructure impacts 1) When considering the appropriate application of emerging technologies to solve local issues, human factors and institutional aspects need to be included as essential components of the ecosystem. The initial objective of Smart Resilient cities is to engage with a cross-section of urban residents to explore: What people expect from sharing their data? How do they weigh up the trust-benefit of sharing their data? Item Open AccessNumerical Seismic Performance Assessment of Precast Pre-stressed Hollow-core Concrete Floors(2019) Sarkis Fernandez, Ana Isabel; Sullivan, Timothy; Brunesi, Emanuele; Nascimbene, RobertoPrecast pre-stressed hollow-core (PPHC) floors have been historically designed and constructed in ways that jeopardize their seismic performance. Particularly, early use of PPHC floors in ductile frames had support connections that were inadequate to accommodate earthquake deformations, making them prone to significant damage, and even collapse, at relatively low drift levels. While improved connection details were developed following past experimental research (Fenwick et al., 2010), concerns regarding the seismic performance of buildings containing PPHC floors have been raised following the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake. In several cases, damage states observed were inconsistent with the failure modes identified by previous research (Henry et al., 2017), bringing into question the seismic assessment of buildings with PPHC floors, the residual capacity of the floors once damage has been sustained, and the effectiveness of existing retrofit techniques. To address these concerns, a campaign of detailed nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses is proposed, with the overall purpose of improving the understanding of the likely behavior of PPHC floors during earthquakes and enhancing the ability to define and/or validate broadly applicable procedures for design and assessment. The campaign is organized in three phases corresponding to the following topics to be investigated: web shear strength of the PPHC units, drift capacity of support connections, and post-cracking behavior of PPHC diaphragms. The models developed during each phase will be validated against experimental data and then used to parametrically investigate key aspects of the performance of PPHC floors. Advances in the first phase are presented, for which, constitutive models, based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, have been used to numerically predict the shear strength capacity, evolution of shear stress distributions and crack patterns of PPHC units. Item Open AccessRisk judgments and social norms: Do they relate to preparedness after the Kaikoura earthquakes(2019) McClure, John; Ferrick, Millie; Johnston, DavidResearch has shown that preparation for natural hazard events reflects several factors including risk judgments and the cost of the actions. Research has also shown the effects of norms in other domains but very little in regard to natural hazards. This study examined risk judgments and preparedness norms following the recent Kaikoura earthquakes. Wellington citizens judged the risk of earthquakes in Wellington, Kaikoura and other parts of New Zealand (‘elsewhere’) before and after the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake. They also reported their preparation and perception of norms for different categories of preparation. Judgments of the risk of a further earthquake occurring following the Kaikoura earthquake rose more for Kaikoura than for Wellington and elsewhere, but participants still judged an earthquake more likely in Wellington and elsewhere than in Kaikoura. Preparation related to risk judgment and to the judgment that preparing was normative, particularly for survival actions. These findings suggest that normative information adds to the effect of risk perceptions about the probability of an earthquake to enhance preparation for these hazards. This finding can be applied in risk communications for earthquakes and other hazards. Item Open AccessGoverning community resilience: Interconnections between community resilience, well-being and capitals.(2019) Garcia, MartinThe lived reality of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes and its implications for the Waimakariri District, a small but rapidly growing district (third tier of government in New Zealand) north of Christchurch, can illustrate how community well-being, community resilience, and community capitals interrelate in practice generating paradoxical results out of what can otherwise be conceived as a textbook ‘best practice’ case of earthquake recovery. The Waimakariri District Council’s integrated community based recovery framework designed and implemented post-earthquakes in the District was built upon strong political, social, and moral capital elements such as: inter-institutional integration and communication, participation, local knowledge, and social justice. This approach enabled very positive community outputs such as artistic community interventions of the urban environment and communal food forests amongst others. Yet, interests responding to broader economic and political processes (continuous central government interventions, insurance and reinsurance processes, changing socio-cultural patterns) produced a significant loss of community capitals (E.g.: social fragmentation, participation exhaustion, economic leakage, etc.) which simultaneously, despite local Council and community efforts, hindered community well-being in the long term. The story of the Waimakariri District helps understand how resilience governance operates in practice where multi-scalar, non-linear, paradoxical, dynamic, and uncertain outcomes appear to be the norm that underpins the construction of equitable, transformative, and sustainable pathways towards the future. Item Open AccessGround motion simulation validation with explicit uncertainty incorporation for small magnitude earthquakes in the Canterbury region(2019) Neill, Sarah; Lee, Robin; Bradley, BrendonThis study explicitly investigates uncertainties in physics-based ground motion simulation validation for earthquakes in the Canterbury region. The simulations utilise the Graves and Pitarka (2015) hybrid methodology, with separately quantified parametric uncertainties in the comprehensive physics and simplified physics components of the model. The study is limited to the simulation of 148 small magnitude (Mw 3.5 – 5) earthquakes, with a point source approximation for the source rupture representations, which also enables a focus on a small number of relevant uncertainties. The parametric uncertainties under consideration were selected through sensitivity analysis, and specifically include: magnitude, Brune stress parameter and high frequency rupture velocity. Twenty Monte Carlo realisations were used to sample parameter uncertainties for each of the 148 events. Residuals associated with the following intensity measures: spectral acceleration, peak ground velocity, arias intensity and significant duration, were ascertained. Using these residuals, validation was performed through assessment of systematic biases in site and source terms from mixed-effects regression. Based on the results to date, initial standard deviation recommendations for parameter uncertainties, based on the Canterbury simulations have been obtained. This work ultimately provides an initial step toward explicit incorporation of modelling uncertainty in simulated ground motion predictions for future events, which will improve the use of simulation models in seismic hazard analysis. We plan to subsequently assess uncertainties for larger magnitude events with more complex ruptures, and events across a larger geographic region, as well as uncertainties due to path attenuation, site effects, and more general model epistemic uncertainties. Item Open AccessLeadership challenges and opportunities in extreme contexts(2019) Pepperell, BruceResearch indicates that aside from the disaster itself, the next major source of adverse outcomes during such events, is from errors by either the response leader or organisation. Yet, despite their frequency, challenge, complexity, and the risks involved; situations of extreme context remain one of the least researched areas in the leadership field. This is perhaps surprising. In the 2010 and 2011 (Christchurch) earthquakes alone, 185 people died and rebuild costs are estimated to have been $40b. Add to this the damage and losses annually around the globe arising from natural disasters, major business catastrophes, and military conflict; there is certainly a lot at stake (lives, way of life, and our well-being). While over the years, much has been written on leadership, there is a much smaller subset of articles on leadership in extreme contexts, with the majority of these focusing on the event rather than leadership itself. Where leadership has been the focus, the spotlight has shone on the actions and capabilities of one person - the leader. Leadership, however, is not simply one person, it is a chain or network of people, delivering outcomes with the support of others, guided by a governance structure, contextualised by the environment, and operating on a continuum across time (before, during, and after an event). This particular research is intended to examine the following: • What are the leadership capabilities and systems necessary to deliver more successful outcomes during situations of extreme context; • How does leadership in these circumstances differ from leadership during business as usual conditions; • Lastly, through effective leadership, can we leverage these unfortunate events to thrive, rather than merely survive? Item Open AccessA Practice-Oriented Method for Predicting Elastic Floor Acceleration Response Spectra(2019) Haymes, Kieran; Sullivan, Timothy; Chandramohan, ReaganSignificant losses have been incurred due to damage to nonstructural components within buildings in recent seismic events, even in instances where the structural systems have performed well. This observation warrants improving the methods currently employed in practice to design nonstructural components to resist seismic demands. Procedures to accurately predict elastic floor response spectra, which can in turn be used to infer the acceleration and deformation demands induced in the nonstructural components, form an important part of the design methodology. Prediction accuracy is often traded off for simplicity in current design practice due to limitations in the available resources for nonstructural component design. This study proposes to develop a practice-oriented modal superposition method to predict elastic floor response spectra that balances accuracy with simplicity. This method is applied to directly produce floor acceleration response spectra. Conversion from acceleration to velocity and displacement spectra is also explicitly considered. The proposed method is verified using earthquake records from case study buildings in New Zealand, as recorded by the GeoNet structural array.