Is the Parwarish parenting intervention feasible and relevant for young people and parents in diverse settings in India? A mixed methods process evaluation

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Nayak P
Singh P
Pillai P
Goicolea I
Mathias, Kaaren

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and relevance of the Parwarish, a positive parenting intervention (adapted from PLH-Teens) in three diverse settings in India. Design This mixed methods study used the Medical Research Council framework for process evaluations of complex interventions. Setting This study was set in disadvantaged communities in urban Agra, rural Uttar Pradesh and tribal Jharkhand in India. Participants Data were collected from 86 facilitators, implementers, parents and teens who participated in the Parwarish intervention among 239 families. Intervention Couples from target communities facilitated groups of parents and teens over the 14-module structured, interactive Parwarish intervention which focused on building communication, reducing harsh parenting and building family budgeting skills. Outcome measures We assessed relevance, acceptability and feasibility of the intervention using mixed methods. Qualitative data collected included semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with implementers, facilitators, parents and young people who were transcribed, translated and thematically analysed to develop themes inherent in the data. Quantitative data which assessed attendance, fidelity to the intervention and facilitator training and coaching were analysed descriptively. Results Findings were grouped under the three domains of facilitation, community engagement and programme support with the following seven themes: (1) community-based facilitators increased contextual validity of the intervention; (2) gender relations were not only influenced by Parwarish implementation but were also influenced and transformed by Parwarish; (3) facilitator responsiveness to group concerns increased participation; (4) participation gathered momentum; (5) Parwarish's strong core and porous periphery allowed adaptations to local contexts; (6) technology that included Skype and WhatsApp enhanced implementation and (7) critical reflection with community trained coaches strengthened facilitation quality and programme fidelity. Conclusion This study found Parwarish engaging, feasible and acceptable in three diverse, low-income communities, although constrained by patriarchal gender relations. It paves the way for larger-scale implementation in other South Asian settings.

Mathias K, Nayak P, Singh P, Pillai P, Goicolea I (2022). Is the Parwarish parenting intervention feasible and relevant for young people and parents in diverse settings in India? A mixed methods process evaluation. BMJ Open. 12(2). e054553-.
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ANZSRC fields of research
Fields of Research::42 - Health sciences::4203 - Health services and systems::420303 - Family care
Fields of Research::44 - Human society::4410 - Sociology::441009 - Sociology of family and relationships
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