Extreme Value Mixture Modelling with Simulation Study and Applications in Finance and Insurance
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Science
Extreme value theory has been used to develop models for describing the distribution of rare events. The extreme value theory based models can be used for asymptotically approximating the behavior of the tail(s) of the distribution function. An important challenge in the application of such extreme value models is the choice of a threshold, beyond which point the asymptotically justified extreme value models can provide good extrapolation. One approach for determining the threshold is to fit the all available data by an extreme value mixture model.
This thesis will review most of the existing extreme value mixture models in the literature and implement them in a package for the statistical programming language R to make them more readily useable by practitioners as they are not commonly available in any software. There are many different forms of extreme value mixture models in the literature (e.g. parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric), which provide an automated approach for estimating the threshold and taking into account the uncertainties with threshold selection.
However, it is not clear that how the proportion above the threshold or tail fraction should be treated as there is no consistency in the existing model derivations. This thesis will develop some new models by adaptation of the existing ones in the literature and placing them all within a more generalized framework for taking into account how the tail fraction is defined in the model. Various new models are proposed by extending some of the existing parametric form mixture models to have continuous density at the threshold, which has the advantage of using less model parameters and being more physically plausible. The generalised framework all the mixture models are placed within can be used for demonstrating the importance of the specification of the tail fraction. An R package called evmix has been created to enable these mixture models to be more easily applied and further developed. For every mixture model, the density, distribution, quantile, random number generation, likelihood and fitting function are presented (Bayesian inference via MCMC is also implemented for the non-parametric extreme value mixture models).
A simulation study investigates the performance of the various extreme value mixture models under different population distributions with a representative variety of lower and upper tail behaviors. The results show that the kernel density estimator based non-parametric form mixture model is able to provide good tail estimation in general, whilst the parametric and semi-parametric forms mixture models can give a reasonable fit if the distribution below the threshold is correctly specified. Somewhat surprisingly, it is found that including a constraint of continuity at the threshold does not substantially improve the model fit in the upper tail. The hybrid Pareto model performs poorly as it does not include the tail fraction term. The relevant mixture models are applied to insurance and financial applications which highlight the practical usefulness of these models.