The mechanism of nitration of anisole in the nitric acid - acetic anhydride mixtures
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Science
A kinetic study of the nitration of anisole in acetic anhydride has been carried out. The concentrations of the reaction product were determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was found that addition of acetic acid, sulphuric acid and lithium perchlorate accelerated the rate of reaction, but lithium nitrate retarded the reaction. The order dependence of the rate with respect to anisole in less than unity. The reaction is third order in nitric acid in the absence of added acetic acid, and second order in nitric acid in the presence of added acetic acid, and then first order in acetic acid. It is suggested that the non-integral order of anisole is the result of the simultaneous reactions, one of which is dependent on anisole concentration and the independent of anisole. The reactive species in the two reactions are suggested to be two different protonated acetyl nitrates.