1,2-Diazoles: Versatile Tectons for Metallosupramolecular Assemblies
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
This study investigates the metallosupramolecular chemistry of functionalised 1,2-diazole ligands, by the preparation and characterisation of a range of first-row transition metal coordination polymers and discrete assemblies. To this end, twenty-six ligands containing 1,2-diazole functionality have been synthesised, twenty-one of which have not previously appeared in the coordination chemistry literature. Utilising these compounds, forty new coordination compounds have been prepared and characterised by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and other analytical techniques, and their solid-state structural features discussed in the search for reproducible new diazole-based synthons for the designed synthesis of new functional materials. Particular attention is paid to the contribution of the second nitrogen atom on the diazole ring, which participates in structure-directing hydrogen bonding interactions, or acts as a synthetic handle to easily append further functionality to the ligand system. The design of the ligands is separated into two primary categories, representing the different approaches adopted for the synthesis of the metallosupramolecular architectures. The combination of 1H-pyrazole and carboxylic acid functionality in mixed-ligand assemblies was investigated with the combination of bis-pyrazole and bis-carboxylic acid ligands, and with the preparation of ligands containing both functional groups. This approach was extended to the related heterocyclic species indazole, with all five possible isomers of indazole-carboxylic acid synthesised and used in coordination chemistry for the first time. The 1H-diazole-carboxylate synthon was employed in the synthesis of fourteen coordination polymers and three discrete assemblies. Heteroaryl substitution at the 1-position of pyrazole or indazole compounds was employed to generate chelating ligands containing pyridine or benzimidazole functionality, which were used to form nineteen discrete complexes, including dinuclear helicates and metallocycles, and five coordination polymers. The effect of flexibility and distance between coordination sites in bis-bidentate ligand systems was examined, in conjunction with studies into the effect of steric bulk and variation of the electronic nature of the coordinating groups. While this study is primarily concerned with the solid-state structural chemistry of 1,2-diazole coordination compounds, attention is paid where appropriate to solution-based measurements such as NMR and UV/Visible studies, and the pertinent behaviour of functional materials, such as thermogravimetric analysis for solvated species and gas uptake studies for stable void-containing materials.