Blood Glucose Prediction Using Stochastic Modeling in Neonatal Intensive Care
Hyperglycemia is a common metabolic problem in premature, low-birth-weight infants. Blood glucose homeostasis in this group is often disturbed by immaturity of endogenous regulatory systems and the stress of their condition in intensive care. A dynamicmodel capturing the fundamental dynamics of the glucose regulatory system provides a measure of insulin sensitivity (SI ). Forecasting the most probable future SI can significantly enhance real-time glucose control by providing a clinically validated/proven level of confidence on the outcome of an intervention, and thus, increased safety against hypoglycemia. A 2-D kernel model of SI is fitted to 3567 h of identified, time-varying SI from retrospective clinical data of 25 neonatal patients with birth gestational age 23 to 28.9 weeks. Conditional probability estimates are used to determine SI probability intervals. A lag-2 stochastic model and adjustments of the variance estimator are used to explore the biasvariance tradeoff in the hour-to-hour variation of SI . The model captured 62.6% and 93.4% of in-sample SI predictions within the (25th–75th) and (5th–95th) probability forecast intervals. This overconservative result is also present on the cross-validation cohorts and in the lag-2 model. Adjustments to the variance estimator found a reduction to 10%–50% of the original value provided optimal coverage with 54.7% and 90.9% in the (25th–75th) and(5th–95th) intervals. A stochastic model of SI provided conservative forecasts, which can add a layer of safety to real-time control. Adjusting the variance estimator provides a more accurate, cohortspecific stochastic model of SI dynamics in the neonate.