Liquefaction-induced ground deformation and damage to piles in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake
A significant geotechnical feature of the 1995 Kobe earthquake was the widespread and massive liquefaction of reclaimed fills in the port area of Kobe. The liquefaction resulted in cyclic ground displacements of inland fills of 30-40 cm while lateral spreading towards the sea occurred in the waterfront area with a magnitude of 1-4 m at the quay walls. The excessive ground movements caused numerous failures and damage to pile foundations in the waterfront area. This paper summarizes the outcome of detailed field, laboratory and analytical investigations and highlights the key features of the liquefaction during the Kobe earthquake. Particular attention is given to liquefaction-induced ground displacements and to their effects on the performance of pile foundations.