Model-Based Insulin and Nutrition Administration for Tight Glycaemic Control in Critical Care
Objective: Present a new model-based tight glycaemic control approach using variable insulin and nutrition administration.
Background: Hyperglycaemia is prevalent in critical care. Current published protocols use insulin alone to reduce blood glucose levels, require significant added clinical effort, and provide highly variable results. None directly address both the practical clinical difficulties and significant patient variation seen in general critical care, while also providing tight control.
Methods: The approach presented manages both nutritional inputs and exogenous insulin infusions using tables simplified from a model-based, computerised protocol. Unique delivery aspects include bolus insulin delivery for safety and variable enteral nutrition rates. Unique development aspects include the use of simulated virtual patient trials created from retrospective data. The model, protocol de-velopment, and first 50 clinical case results are presented.
Results: High qualitative correlation to within +/-10% between simulated virtual trials and published clinical results validates the overall approach. Pilot tests covering 7358 patient hours produced an average glucose of 5.9 +/- 1.1 mmol/L. Time in the 4-6.1 mmol/L band was 59%, with 84% in 4.0-7.0 mmol/L, and 92% in 4.0-7.75 mmol/L. The average feed rate was 63% of patient specific goal feed and the average insulin dose was 2.6U/hour. There was one hypoglycaemic measurement of 2.1 mmol/L. No departures from protocol or clinical interventions were required at any time.
Summary: Modulating both low dose insulin boluses and nutrition input rates challenges the current practice of using only insulin in larger doses to reduce hyperglycaemic levels. Clinical results show very tight control in safe glycaemic bands. The approach could be readily adopted in any typical ICU.