Alternative Data Sources for Impact-Based Forecasts and Warnings and Impact Modelling Risk Communication
Introduction Impact modelling and early warning systems play a key role in community resilience. Identifying the specific impacts of a hazard allows communities to adjust their behaviours and better prepare. Availability of, and access to, impact, vulnerability, and exposure data before, during, and after an event are key challenges to building impact-based forecasting and warning (IBFW) systems. To generate these data, collaboration and partnerships with various stakeholders are necessary; their role in the IBFW framework is demonstrated in Fig. 1. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has become increasingly important in disaster risk reduction (DRR), primarily in the during and response phases . However, it has potential as a collaborative process for improving risk communication . Information and knowledge possessed by citizens can uncover “areas of importance or concern” that have yet to be identified in an official capacity [3, p. 40]. Furthermore, sharing information with and between citizens and officials fosters trust and social capital within communities, leading to increased resilience , .
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