Effect of lateral confining reinforcement on the ductile behaviour of reinforced concrete columns
Thesis DisciplineCivil Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
This thesis is concerned with the effects of lateral confining reinforcement on the ductile behaviour of reinforced concrete columns. The contents of the chapters are summarized as follows. In Chapter one, the general problems in seismic design are discussed and earthquake design methods based on the ductile design approach are described. Japanese, New Zealand and United States design codes are compared. Finally, the scope of this research project is outlined. In Chapter two, after reviewing previous research on confined concrete, the factors which affect the effectiveness of lateral confinement are discussed. Especially the effects of the yield strength of transverse reinforcement, the compressive strength of plain concrete and the strain gradient in the column section due to bending are discussed based on tests which were conducted by the author et al at Kyoto University and Akashi Technological College, Japan. In the axial compression tests on spirally reinforced concrete cylinders (150 mm in diameter by 300 mm in height), the yield strength of transverse reinforcement and the compressive strength of plain concrete were varied from 161 MPa to 1352 MPa and from 17 MPa to 60 MPa, respectively, as experimental parameters. It is found that, when high strength spirals are used as confining reinforcement, the strength and ductility of the confined core concrete are remarkably enhanced but need to be estimated assuming several failure modes which could occur. These are based on the observations that concrete cylinders with high strength spirals suddenly failed at a concrete compressive strain of 2 to 3.5 % due to explosive crushing of the core concrete between the spiral bars or due to bearing failure of the core concrete immediately beneath the spiral bars, while the concrete cylinders with ordinary strength spirals failed in a gentle manner normally observed. In addition, eccentric loading tests were conducted on concrete columns with 200 mm square section confined by square spirals. It is found that the effectiveness of confining reinforcement is reduced by the presence of the strain gradient along the transverse section of column. In Chapter three, the effectiveness of transverse reinforcement with various types of anchorage details which simplify the fabrication of reinforcing cages are investigated. Eight reinforced concrete columns, with either 400 mm or 550 mm square cross sections, were tested subjected to axial compression loading and cyclic lateral loading which simulated a severe earthquake. The transverse reinforcement consisted of arrangements of square perimeter hoops with 135° end hooks, cross ties with 90° and 135° or 180° end hooks, and 'U' and 'J' shaped cross ties and perimeter hoops with tension splices. Conclusions are reached with regard to the effectiveness of the tested anchorage details in the plastic hinge regions of columns designed for earthquake resistance. In Chapter four, the effectiveness of interlocking spirals as transverse reinforcement is studied. Firstly, the general aspects and the related problems of interlocking spirals to provide adequate ductility in the potential plastic hinge region of columns are discussed, referring to the provisions in the New Zealand code,the CALTRANS (California Transportation Authority) code and other related codes. Secondly, based on those discussions, a design method to securely interlock the spirals is proposed. Thirdly, the effectiveness of interlocking spirals is assessed based on column tests conducted as part of this study. Three columns with interlocking spirals and, for comparison, one rectangular column with rectangular hoopsandcross ties, were tested under cyclic horizontal loading which simulated a severe earthquake. The sections of those columns were 400 mm by 600 mm. In Chapter five, analytical models to investigate the buckling behaviour of longitudinal reinforcement restrained by cross ties with 90° and 135° end hooks and by peripheral hoops are proposed. The analyzed results using the proposed models compare well with the experimental observations described in Chapter three. Using those proposed models, a method to check the effectiveness of cross ties with 90° and 135° end hooks is proposed for practical design purposes. In Chapter six, a theory for the prediction of the ultimate longitudinal compressive concrete strain at the stage of first hoop fracture referred to as the "Energy Balance Theory", which has been developed by Mander, Priestley and Park at University of Canterbury, is introduced. After discussing the problems in the "Energy Balance Theory", a modified theory for the prediction of the ultimate longitudinal compressive concrete strain at the stage of first hoop fracture is proposed. The predictions from the modified theory are found to compare well with previous experimental results.