Supplementation of blackcurrant anthocyanins increased cyclic glycine-proline in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson patients: Potential treatment to improve insulin-like growth factor-1 function

Fan D
Alamri Y
Liu K
Harris P
Brimble M
Dalrymple-Alford J
Prickett T
Menzies O
Laurenson A
Anderson T

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) function is impaired in Parkinson disease. Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, is neuroprotective through improving IGF-1 function. Parkinson disease patients score lower on Hospital-associated Anxiety and Depression Scale after supplementing blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCA), which may be associated with IGF-1 function. We evaluated the changes of cGP and IGF-1 before and after the supplementation. Methods: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from 11 male patients before and after 28 day supplementation of BCA. The concentrations of IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and cGP were measured using ELISA and HPLC-MS assays. The presence of cGP in the BCA was evaluated. Results: cGP presented in the BCA. BCA supplementation increased the concentration of cGP (p < 0.01), but not IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the CSF. CSF concentration of cGP was correlated with plasma concentration of cGP (R = 0.68, p = 0.01) and cGP/IGF-1 molar ratio (R = 0.66, p = 0.01). The CSF/plasma ratio was high in cGP and low in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Conclusion: cGP is a natural nutrient to the BCA. The increased CSF cGP in Parkinson disease patients may result from the central uptake of plasma cGP. Given neurotrophic function, oral availability, and effective central uptake of cGP, the BCA has the potential to be developed to treat neurological conditions with IGF-1 deficiency.

Humans, Ribes, Fruit, Parkinson Disease, Anthocyanins, Peptides, Cyclic, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3, Antiparkinson Agents, Treatment Outcome, Time Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Middle Aged, New Zealand, Male, Biomarkers, cyclic Glycine-Proline (cGP), bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), blackcurrant anthocyanins, autocrine regulation, cerebrospinal fluid, central uptake
Ngā upoko tukutuku/Māori subject headings
ANZSRC fields of research
Field of Research::11 - Medical and Health Sciences::1109 - Neurosciences::110903 - Central Nervous System
Field of Research::11 - Medical and Health Sciences::1103 - Clinical Sciences::110308 - Geriatrics and Gerontology
Field of Research::11 - Medical and Health Sciences::1111 - Nutrition and Dietetics::111199 - Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Field of Research::03 - Chemical Sciences::0304 - Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry::030499 - Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research::42 - Health sciences::4208 - Traditional, complementary and integrative medicine::420899 - Traditional, complementary and integrative medicine not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research::32 - Biomedical and clinical sciences::3214 - Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences::321402 - Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (