Multifunctional and Stable Monolayers on Carbon: A Simple and Reliable Method for Backfilling Sparse Layers Grafted from Protected Aryldiazonium Ions
Type of content
A new strategy for preparation of robust multifunctional low nanometer thickness monolayers on carbon substrates is presented. Beginning with protected aryldiazonium salts, sparse monolayers of ethynyl-, amino-, and carboxy-terminated tethers are covalently anchored to the surface. The layers are then backfilled with a second modifier via the nucleophilic addition of an amine derivative to the surface. Through use of electroactive moieties coupled to the tethers, and an electroactive amine for backfilling, electrochemical measurements reveal that backfilling approximately doubles the surface concentration of the monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry of solution-based redox probes at the modified surfaces is consistent with the expected blocking properties at various stages of surface preparation. Fractional surface coverages of the layers are estimated using electrochemically determined surface concentrations of modifiers and computationally derived modifier footprints. Assuming free rotation of the coupled ferrocenyl or nitrophenyl groups leads to physically unreasonable fractional surface coverages, indicating that these larger modifiers must be rotationally restricted. Using a conformationally constrained model produces lower bound estimates of the total fractional surface coverage close to 0.4, with tether-only coverages close to 0.2. The backfilled tether layers constitute practical platforms for controlled construction of complex interfaces with many potential applications including sensing, molecular electronics, and catalysis.
Ngā upoko tukutuku/Māori subject headings
ANZSRC fields of research
Fields of Research::34 - Chemical sciences::3403 - Macromolecular and materials chemistry::340309 - Theory and design of materials
Fields of Research::34 - Chemical sciences::3406 - Physical chemistry::340603 - Colloid and surface chemistry
Fields of Research::40 - Engineering::4016 - Materials engineering::401699 - Materials engineering not elsewhere classified