Improved Position Accuracy of Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor by Discrete Corrections from Vision-Based Fiducial Marker Tracking

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Khan H
Clark A
Woodward G
W. Lindeman R

In this paper, we present a novel pedestrian indoor positioning system that uses sensor fusion between a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a vision-based fiducial marker tracking system. The goal is to provide an after-action review for first responders during training exercises. The main contribution of this work comes from the observation that different walking types (e.g., forward walking, sideways walking, backward walking) lead to different levels of position and heading error. Our approach takes this into account when accumulating the error, thereby leading to more-accurate estimations. Through experimentation, we show the variation in error accumulation and the improvement in accuracy alter when and how often to activate the camera tracking system, leading to better balance between accuracy and power consumption overall. The IMU and vision-based systems are loosely coupled using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to ensure accurate and unobstructed positioning computation. The motion model of the EKF is derived from the foot-mounted IMU data and the measurement model from the vision system. Existing indoor positioning systems for training exercises require extensive active infrastructure installation, which is not viable for exercises taking place in a remote area. With the use of passive infrastructure (i.e., fiducial markers), the positioning system can accurately track user position over a longer duration of time and can be easily integrated into the environment. We evaluated our system on an indoor trajectory of 250 m. Results show that even with discrete corrections, near a meter level of accuracy can be achieved. Our proposed system attains the positioning accuracy of 0.55 m for a forward walk, 1.05 m for a backward walk, and 1.68 m for a sideways walk with a 90% confidence level.

Khan H, Clark A, Woodward G, W. Lindeman R Improved Position Accuracy of Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor by Discrete Corrections from Vision-Based Fiducial Marker Tracking. Sensors. 20(18). 5031-5031.
foot-mounted inertial sensor, zero-velocity update, fiducial marker tracking, extended Kalman filter, visual-inertial sensor fusion
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Fields of Research::46 - Information and computing sciences::4603 - Computer vision and multimedia computation::460301 - Active sensing
Fields of Research::40 - Engineering::4009 - Electronics, sensors and digital hardware::400999 - Electronics, sensors and digital hardware not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research::42 - Health sciences::4207 - Sports science and exercise::420701 - Biomechanics
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