Liberation, Oppression and Education: Extending Freirean Ideas
This paper reflects on some of the questions raised by Pedagogy of Indignation, paying particular attention to the relationship between oppression, liberation and education in Freire’s work. The first section addresses claims of ‘universalism’ in Freirean philosophy and assesses the extent to which Freire’s account of liberation depends upon the existence of oppression. It is argued that interwoven with Freire’s emphasis on oppression, there exists a ‘shadow’, virtue-based theory of liberation. This is particularly evident in later Freirean publications. This idea is developed further in the second part of the paper, where Freire’s contribution to what Balduino Andreola calls a ‘pedagogy of great convergences’ is considered.