Small Scale Maximum Power Point Tracking Power Converter for Developing Country Application
Thesis DisciplineElectrical Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Engineering
This thesis begins with providing a basic introduction of electricity requirements for small developing country communities serviced by small scale generating units (focussing mainly on small wind turbine, small Photo Voltaic system and Micro-Hydro Power Plants). Scenarios of these small scale units around the world are presented. Companies manufacturing different size wind turbines are surveyed in order to propose a design that suits the most abundantly available and affordable turbines. Different Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms normally employed for these small scale generating units are listed along with their working principles. Most of these algorithms for MPPT do not require any mechanical sensors in order to sense the control parameters like wind speed and rotor speed (for small wind turbines), temperature and irradiation (for PV systems), and water flow and water head (for Micro-Hydro). Models for all three of these systems were developed in order to generate Maximum Power Point (MPP) curves. Similarly, a model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSGs) has been developed in the d-q reference frame. A boost rectifier which enables active Power Factor Correction (PFC) and has a DC regulated output voltage is proposed before implementing a MPPT algorithm. The proposed boost rectifier works on the principle of Direct Power Control Space Vector Modulation (DPC-SVM) which is based on instantaneous active and reactive power control loops. In this technique, the switching states are determined according to the errors between commanded and estimated values of active and reactive powers. The PMSG and Wind Turbine behaviour are simulated at various wind speeds. Similarly, simulation of the proposed PFC boost rectifier is performed in matlab/simulink. The output of these models are observed for the variable wind speeds which identifies PFC and boosted constant DC output voltage is obtained. A buck converter that employs the MPPT algorithm is proposed and modeled. The model of a complete system that consists of a variable speed small wind turbine, PMSG, DPC-SVM boost rectifier, and buck converter implementing MPPT algorithm is developed. The proposed MPPT algorithm is based upon the principle of adjusting the duty ratio of the buck converter in order reach the MPP for different wind speeds (for small wind turbines) and different water flow rates (Micro-Hydro). Finally, a prototype DPC-SVM boost rectifier and buck converter was designed and built for a turbine with an output power ranging from 50 W-1 kW. Inductors for the boost rectifier and buck DC-DC converter were designed and built for these output power ranges. A microcontroller was programmed in order to generate three switching signals for the PFC boost rectifier and one switching signal for the MPPT buck converter. Three phase voltages and currents were sensed to determine active and reactive power. The voltage vectors were divided into 12 sectors and a switching algorithm based on the DPC-SVM boost rectifier model was implemented in order to minimize the errors between commanded and estimated values of active and reactive power. The system was designed for charging 48 V battery bank. The generator three phase voltage is boosted to a constant 80 V DC. Simulation results of the DPC-SVM based rectifier shows that the output power could be varied by varying the DC load maintaining UPF and constant boosted DC voltage. A buck DC-DC converter is proposed after the boost rectifier stage in order to charge the 48 V battery bank. Duty ratio of the buck converter is varied for varying the output power in order to reach the MPP. The controller prototype was designed and developed. A laboratory setup connecting 4 kW induction motor (behaving as a wind turbine) with 1kW PMSG was built. Speed-torque characteristic of the induction motor is initially determined. The torque out of the motor varies with the motor speed at various motor supply voltages. At a particular supply voltage, the motor torque reaches peak power at a certain turbine speed. Hence, the control algorithm is tested to reach this power point. Although the prototype of the entire system was built, complete results were not obtained due to various time constraints. Results from the boost rectifier showed that the appropriate switching were performed according to the digitized signals of the active and reactive power errors for different voltage sectors. Simulation results showed that for various wind speed, a constant DC voltage of 80 V DC is achieved along with UPF. MPPT control algorithm was tested for induction motor and PMSG combination. Results showed that the MPPT could be achieved by varying the buck converter duty ratio with UPF achieved at various wind speeds.