Quantifying forest degradation and deforestation using Geographic Information System (GIS); a case study in the three provinces, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and South-east Sulawesi, Indonesia
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Forestry Science
Forest degradation and deforestation have been pervasive problems in Indonesia and the country is placed second in terms of a high rate of tropical deforestation. Different definitions and different techniques have been used to quantify forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia, and different factors have been detected as direct and underlying causes. However, almost no quantitative studies have been conducted to relate deforestation and forest degradation to the causes. This study quantifies the rate of forest degradation and deforestation between 2000 and 2009 in three provinces of Indonesia, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and South East Sulawesi, as a case study. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate geographic datasets to allow quantification; accompanied by a descriptive statistical analysis. Land cover in 2000 and 2009 was used as the basis of analysis. A national land use classification was aggregated into 10 different land use classes. Changes in land use between 2000 and 2009 allowed quantification of the rates of forest degradation and deforestation as well as the association between degradation and deforestation and potential causes. Overall, 95% of primary forest degradation in South Kalimantan, 65% in East Kalimantan, and 46% in SE Sulawesi were associated with direct causes such as forest concessions, mining activities and the government-sponsored transmigration program. The selected direct causes explain 56% of secondary forest deforestation in South Kalimantan, 44% in East Kalimantan and 55% in SE Sulawesi. Results of this study also show that forest degradation and deforestation occurred across the official forest areas. Almost 40% of forest degradation in South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan occurred in conservation forests and production forests respectively; while 57% of forest degradation in SE Sulawesi occurred in protected forests. Deforestation occurred 29% and 34% in the production forests of South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan respectively. In SE Sulawesi, 34% of deforestation occurred in watershed protection forests. This study suggests that current practice in the forest resources management in Indonesia is not effective and efficient enough to mitigate and to halt forest degradation and deforestation. This is due to the lack of consistency in implementing forest land use policy, mistaken policy interventions, and non-synchronised policy between central and local governments. Policy reform is needed to conserve the remaining forest resources and mega-diversity of Indonesia.