Minimum Energy Transport Adaptability
Thesis DisciplineMechanical Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
In the face of future transport energy supply constraints it is imperative that planners understand transport energy adaptability within cities. This thesis presents for the first time an analysis methodology for mapping the spatial distribution of limits to energy adaptability. Termed the Minimum Energy Transport Adaptability (META) method, it characterises urban areas, synthesising a situation in which households have enacted all viable transport energy adaptations. The output is an estimation of the minimum possible transport energy required by households in meeting their day-to-day activity requirements. The META method combines elements of energy engineering, accessibility modelling and transport activity modelling. The analysis makes use of national household travel surveys to define the frequency of activity access and ability to use modes at the national level, and study area Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data for origins, facilities and transport networks. Two case studies have been investigated in New Zealand, the cities of Christchurch and Hamilton, and have shown that most residential areas in these cities do not limit the adaptive options available to residents. However, outlying areas, satellite towns and lifestyle properties consistently require large amounts of transport energy consumption and thus limit the ability of residents to adapt to future energy constraints. The META model enables, for the first time, the effects of future transport energy constraints to be mapped, visualised, quantified, and consequently considered in the planning process.