Symmetries of Elko and massive vector fields
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
This thesis studies the symmetries and phenomenologies of the massive vector fields of indefinite spin with both scalar and spin-one degrees of freedom and Elko. The investigation is conducted by using and extending the quantum field theory formalism developed by Wigner and Weinberg. In particular, we explore the possibility that the W± and Z bosons have an additional scalar degree of freedom and show that Elko is a fermionic dark matter candidate.
We show that the massive vector fields of indefinite spin are consistent with Poincaré symmetry and have physically desirable properties that are absent for their pure spin-one counterpart. Using the new vector fields, the decay of the W± and Z bosons to leptons at tree-level are in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. For higher order scattering amplitudes, the theory has better convergent behaviour than the intermediate vector boson model and the Fermi theory.
Elko has the unusual property that it satisfies the Klein-Gordon but not the Dirac equation and has mass dimension one instead of three-half. We show that the Elko fields are local only along a preferred axis and that they violate Lorentz symmetry. Motivated by the results obtained by Ahluwalia and Horvath that the Elko spin-sums are covariant under very special relativity (VSR) transformations, we derive the VSR particle states and quantum fields. We show that the VSR particles can only interact with the SM particles through gravity and massive scalar particles thus making them and hence Elko dark matter candidates.