Characteristics of Liquefaction Induced Damage in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake
Features of the 2011 earthquake in Japan are characterized by predominance of the ground failure due to liquefaction and scour of the ground caused by Tsunami. Unprecedented long duration of the shaking and extensive occurrence of liquefaction in Tokyo Bay area 300~400km distant from the epicentral area are also the characteristic features of the earthquake. Many specially designed tsunami seawalls were destroyed by the raid of the giant tsunami as high as 15~20m in the coastal region of the northern part of Japan mainland. The results of preliminary investigations and simple analysis on the liquefaction-induced damage are introduced herein, together with lessons learned from the destruction.