Systematics and evolution of Carmichaelia, Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium (Fabaceae) from New Zealand
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
All names in Carmichaelia, Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium were typified, with many names requiring the selection of a lectotype. A taxonomic revision was undertaken of Carmichaelia, with seventeen species accepted as indigenous to New Zealand. A major taxonomic problem in Notospartium was resolved using morphological and habitat data. Two species of Notospartium are indigenous to Marlborough, these being separated by fault lines and each is associated with different parent materials. Wood anatomy of most species of Carmichaelia, Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium was described to provide phylogenetically informative characters. The wood is characterised by vessels with helical thickenings and simple perforations; vessels, axial parenchyma, and short rays arranged in storied structure; predominantly fusiform parenchyma; and rays up to 20 cells wide. Developmental studies showed that Carmichaelia, Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium exhibit habit- and leaf-heteroblastic development. A phylogenetic analysis using 47 mainly anatomical and morphological characters was undertaken using parsimony analysis. This analysis provided evidence that Carmichaelia is paraphyletic if Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium are excluded, but monophyletic if these taxa are included in Carmichaelia. It is recommended that Carmichaelia be recircumscribed to include Chordospartium, Corallospartium, and Notospartium. Among the outgroup species Swainsona novae-zelandiae is shown to differ from Australian Swainsona by significant anatomical characters. To more accurately reflect its evolutionary history it is recommended that it be placed in a new and monotypic New Zealand genus.