Seismic response and design of subassemblies for multi-storey prestressed timber buildings.
Thesis DisciplineCivil Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
Timber has experienced renewed interests as a sustainable building material in recent times. Although traditionally it has been the prime choice for residential construction in New Zealand and some other parts of the world, its use can be increased significantly in the future through a wider range of applications, particularly when adopting engineered wood material, Research has been started on the development of innovative solutions for multi-storey non-residential timber buildings in recent years and this study is part of that initiative. Application of timber in commercial and office spaces posed some challenges with requirements of large column-free spaces. The current construction practice with timber is not properly suited for structures with the aforementioned required characteristics and new type of structures has to be developed for this type of applications. Any new structural system has to have adequate capacity for carry the gravity and lateral loads due to occupancy and the environmental effects. Along with wind loading, one of the major sources of lateral loads is earthquakes. New Zealand, being located in a seismically active region, has significant risk of earthquake hazard specially in the central region of the country and any structure has be designed for the seismic loading appropriate for the locality. There have been some significant developments in precast concrete in terms of solutions for earthquake resistant structures in the last decade. The “Hybrid” concept combining post-tensioning and energy dissipating elements with structural members has been introduced in the late 1990s by the precast concrete industry to achieve moment-resistant connections based on dry jointed ductile connections. Recent research at the University of Canterbury has shown that the concept can be adopted for timber for similar applications. Hybrid timber frames using post-tensioned beams and dissipaters have the potential to allow longer spans and smaller cross sections than other forms of solid timber frames. Buildings with post-tensioned frames and walls can have larger column-free spaces which is a particular advantage for non-residential applications. While other researchers are focusing on whole structural systems, this research concentrated on the analysis and design of individual members and connections between members or between member and foundation. This thesis extends existing knowledge on the seismic behaviour and response of post-tensioned single walls, columns under uni-direction loads and small scale beam-column joint connections into the response and design of post-tensioned coupled walls, columns under bi-directional loading and full-scale beam-column joints, as well as to generate further insight into practical applications of the design concept for subassemblies. Extensive experimental investigation of walls, column and beam-column joints provided valuable confirmation of the satisfactory performance of these systems. In general, they all exhibited almost complete re-centering capacity and significant energy dissipation, without resulting into structural damage. The different configurations tested also demonstrated the flexibility in design and possibilities for applications in practical structures. Based on the experimental results, numerical models were developed and refined from previous literature in precast concrete jointed ductile connections to predict the behaviour of post-tensioned timber subassemblies. The calibrated models also suggest the values of relevant parameters for applications in further analysis and design. Section analyses involving those parameters are performed to develop procedures to calculate moment capacities of the subassemblies.
The typical features and geometric configurations the different types of subassemblies are similar with the only major difference in the connection interfaces. With adoption of appropriate values representing the corresponding connection interface and incorporation of the details of geometry and configurations, moment capacities of all the subassemblies can be calculated with the same scheme. That is found to be true for both post-tensioned-only and hybrid specimens and also applied for both uni-directional and bi-directional loading. The common section analysis and moment capacity calculation procedure is applied in the general design approach for subassemblies.