Transplanted Irish institutions : Orangeism and Hibernianism in New Zealand, 1877-1910.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Arts
This thesis is a social and cultural history which investigates the nature of the antagonism between Catholic and Protestant Irish through the Loyal Orange Institution and the Hibernian Australasian Catholic Benefit Society in New Zealand 1877-1910. This research substantially contributes to the study of these organizations during this period. The ritual and fraternalism of each institution gave these two communities a sense of cohesion and purpose but also contributed to the sectarian tension between them. Fraternalism was an important aspect of both organizations and this resulted in the development of brotherhoods. The introduction of Ladies Lodges in the L.O.I. and ladies branches in the H.A.C.B.S. threatened the exclusiveness of the 'brotherhood'. Once these two institutions have been set in their context then two case studies are used to see how they performed within New Zealand society. The use of symbolism and ritual in parades is used as a focal point for discussing tensions and conflict. This sectarian tension is also illustrated in the way that the L.O.I. used anti -Catholic lecturers to support their ideals. The Hibernians supported the Catholic Church in its missionary endeavours and also in its attempt to thwart the anti-Catholic lecturers. The L.O.I. and the H.A.C.B.S. exemplified the Irish Protestant and Irish Catholic traditions. The L.O.1. gradually became a charitable organization but the sectarian nature of both organizations remained. Public conflict was minimal between 1877-1910. There was a brief burst of increased sectarian tension during the World War One period but this was mainly due to external influences.