Intensity measures for the seismic response of pile foundations
In this study the efficacy of various ground motion intensity measures for the seismic response of pile foundations embedded in liquefiable and non-liquefiable soils is investigated. A soil-pile-structure model consisting of a two-layer soil deposit with a single pile and a single degree-of-freedom superstructure is used in a parametric study to determine the salient features of the seismic response of the soil-pile-structure system. A suite of ground motion records scaled to various levels of intensity are used to investigate the full range of pile behaviour, from elastic response to failure. Various intensity measures are used to inspect their efficiency in predicting the seismic demand on the pile foundation for a given level of ground motion intensity. It is found that velocity-based intensity measures are the most efficient in predicting the pile response, which is measured in terms of maximum curvature or pile-head displacement. In particular, velocity spectrum intensity (VSI), which represents the integral of the pseudo-velocity spectrum over a wide period range, is found to be the most efficient intensity measure in predicting the seismic demands on the pile foundation. VSI is also found to be a sufficient intensity measure with respect to earthquake magnitude, sourceto- site distance, and epsilon, and has a good predictability, thus making it a prime candidate for use in seismic response analysis of pile foundations.