The effect of shear strength normalisation on the response of piles in laterally spreading soils
In the simplified pseudo-static analysis of piles, the ultimate lateral pressure from the liquefied soil is commonly approximated based on the residual strength of liquefied soils. This strength does not have sound theoretical basis, but rather is estimated from one of several empirical relationships between the residual strength and penetration resistance. The two empirical relationships adopted in this study, even though originating from the same database, result in substantially different strength profiles (ultimate lateral pressures on the pile) throughout the depth of the liquefied layer. Series of analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of strength normalisation on the pile response predicted by the pseudo-static analysis. It was found that effects of strength normalisation can be quite significant and that they depend on the relative stiffness of the pile and thickness of a non-liquefiable crust at the ground surface.