Nation Energy System Patterns and Forecasting
Thesis DisciplineElectrical Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Engineering
This thesis investigates the patterns of each type of energy consumption for fourteen countries, to study the link between energy consumption, economics and population. It was found that for all the countries studied, there is a decrease in energy consumption relative to economic growth. This shows that the world has become less energy based, and is more efficient in using energy to produce economic wealth.
The carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions for each fossil fuel type used for electricity generation in New Zealand: coal, gas and oil was also calculated. Gas is the main contributor of CO₂ by electricity generation for New Zealand. New Zealand's CO₂ emissions from electricity generation have nearly tripled in the last 12 years. Despite the environmental concerns of global warming and the Kyoto protocol, there has been a large increase in total CO₂ emitted. This increase has seen a replacement of gas by coal in order to continue to meet the electricity demand of the nation.
New Zealand has a small energy market relative to the global market. World energy market patterns show a recent history of oil declining, coal declining, gas increasing and the significant presence of nuclear. Renewable energies are insignificant on the world scene. These are marked contrasts to the New Zealand scene.
Of the renewable energy supply fuels, both hydro and geothermal have been in decline, from before deregulation. This trend will continue in the future if left to market forces. Although renewable energy may be a solution to New Zealand's energy supply, the increase in market share of other renewable energies to date is limited. They are unlikely to be sufficient to cover New Zealand's energy demand in the near future. With New Zealand being dependent on the world supply of oil, the expected depletion of the Maui gas field, the low market share for renewable energy and rising concerns about pollution, the green house effects and global warming, nuclear power is considered an option in New Zealand.