Skin dose measurement for interventional cardiology.
Thesis DisciplineMedical Physics
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Science
This thesis details the measurement and simulation of patient skin doses arising from X-ray exposure during interventional cardiology procedures. Interventional cardiology procedures can be long and complex resulting in high skin doses, to the extent that radiation burns may be produced. Twenty patients were used in the study consisting of 10 coronary angiogram and 10 coronary angioplasty procedures. Radiochromic films were used to measure skin dose directly. The Gafchromic® XR-RV2 film was chosen for its suitability for this project. The key characteristics of this film were experimentally determined including: dose response, energy dependence, polarisation and post-exposure growth. The dose range was found to be ideally suited for the doses encountered in this study. Energy dependence was found to be ~14% between 60 and 125 kVp at 1 Gy and introduced an unavoidable uncertainty into dose calculations from unknown beam energies. Document scanner characteristics were also been investigated and a scanning protocol is determined. A mathematical model was created to use the geometry and exposure information encoded into acquisition files to reconstruct dose and dose distributions. The model requires a set of study files encoded according to the DICOM format, as well as user input for fluoroscopic estimations. The output is a dose map and dose summary. Simulation parameters were varied and results compared with film measurements to provide the most accurate model. From the data collected the relation between dose area product, maximum skin dose and fluoroscopic time were also investigated. The results demonstrated that a model based on acquisition information can accurately predict maximum skin dose and provide useful geometrical information. The model is currently being developed into a standalone program for use by the Medical Physics and Bioengineering department.