Development of a Clinical Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic System Model and in Silico Simulation Tool
Objectives: To develop a safe and effective protocol for the clinical control of Type 1 diabetes using conventional self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) measurements, and multiple daily injection (MDI) with insulin analogues. To develop an in silico simulation tool of Type 1 diabetes to predict long-term glycaemic control outcomes of clinical interventions. Methods: The virtual patient method is used to develop a simulation tool for Type 1 diabetes using data from a Type 1 diabetes patient cohort (n=40). The tool is used to test the adaptive protocol (AC) and a conventional intensive insulin therapy (CC) against results from a representative control cohort. Optimal and suboptimal basal insulin replacement are evaluated as a function of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) frequency in conjunction with the (AC and CC) prandial control protocols. Results: In long-term glycaemic control, the AC protocol significantly decreases HbA1c in conditions of suboptimal basal insulin replacement for SMBG frequencies =6/day, and reduced the occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia by 86-100% over controls over all SMBG frequencies in conditions of optimal basal insulin. Conclusions: A simulation tool to predict long-term glycaemic control outcomes from clinical interventions is developed to test a novel, adaptive control protocol for Type 1 diabetes. The protocol is effective and safe compared to conventional intensive insulin therapy and controls. As fear of hypoglycaemia is a large psychological barrier to glycaemic control, the AC protocol may represent the next evolution of intensive insulin therapy to deliver increased glycaemic control with increased safety. Further clinical or experimental validation is needed to fully prove the concept.