Video prompting and increasing assistance : a comparison of two prompting methods.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Education
Training mentally retarded people to use devices such as computers and video recorders gives them control over their learning and access to information and recreational activities. This study aimed to train four moderately and severely retarded people to use a video-recorder and a microcomputer. A video was made for each task based on detailed task analyses. Two training methods were used: increasing assistance, where a pause in performance was followed by first a non-verbal, then a verbal, then a gestural, and finally a physical prompt as necessary; and video prompts in which each step of the task analysis was demonstrated on a video monitor and followed by an opportunity to perform the step. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used. Maintenance, and transfer (generalisation) to another trainer situation, and model of micro-computer and videorecorder were examined. Both methods successfully trained the subjects to perform the tasks. Those who were initially trained by increasing assistance showed more transfer to the second task. Those trained by video prompting showed higher levels of skill maintenance and transfer to other situations. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of video prompts and suggest their application to training everyday behaviour chains.