Volcanic hazard risk assessment for the RiskScape program, with test application in Rotorua, New Zealand, and Mammoth Lakes, USA.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameDoctor of Philosophy
This thesis presents a new GIS-based scenario volcanic risk assessment model called RiskScape Volcano (RSV) that has been designed for the RiskScape program to advance the field of volcanic risk assessment. RiskScape is a natural hazards risk assessment software tool being developed in New Zealand by GNS Science and NIWA. When integrated into RiskScape, RSV will add proximal volcanic hazard risk assessment capability, and enhanced inventory design; it presently operates outside of RiskScape by combining volcanic hazard models’ output spatial hazard intensity (hazard maps) with inventory databases (asset maps) in GIS software to determine hazard exposure, which is then combined with fragility functions (relationships between hazard intensity and expected damage ratios) to estimate risk. This thesis consists of seven publications, each of which comprises a part of the development and testing of RSV: 1) results of field investigation of impacts to agriculture and infrastructure of the 2006 eruption of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia; 2) agricultural fragility functions for tephra damage in New Zealand based on the observations made at Merapi; 3) examination of wind patterns above the central North Island, New Zealand for better modeling of tephra dispersal with the ASHFALL model; 4) a description of the design, components, background, and an example application of the RSV model; 5) test of RSV via a risk assessment of population, agriculture, and infrastructure in the Rotorua District from a rhyolite eruption at the Okataina Volcanic Centre; 6) test of RSV via a comparison of risk to critical infrastructure in Mammoth Lakes, California from an eruption at Mammoth Mountain volcano versus an eruption from the Inyo craters; and 7) a survey of volcanic hazard awareness in the tourism sector in Mammoth Lakes. Tests of the model have demonstrated that it is capable of providing valid and useful risk assessments that can be used by local government and emergency management to prioritise eruption response planning and risk mitigation efforts. RSV has provided the RiskScape design team with a more complete quantitative volcanic risk assessment model that can be integrated into RiskScape and used in New Zealand and potentially overseas.