Effective advertising for non-profit charities : how humanisation, proximal distance, and facial expression affects donations.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Canterbury
Degree NameMaster of Commerce
The purpose of this research is to determine how proximal distance, humanisation, and emotion in non-profit advertising affects donation intention, attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the charity, and willingness to recommend the charity to a friend. The study also tested for a difference in donation intention between high and low levels of religiosity and between regular donors and those who do not make regular donations to non-profit charities.
The research sampled participants from New Zealand churches and American Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers, using Turk Prime. This study used a mainstream quantitative approach through an online survey. The study was a 2 x 2 x 3 between-subjects factorial design. The independent variables were proximal distance (low or high), emotion (sad or happy) and humanisation (No, low, or high). The dependent variables were donation intention, attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the charity and willingness to recommend the charity. A MANCOVA was conducted to test the interactions between the independent and the dependent variables, while controlling for covariate variables. Independent-sample t-tests were also conducted to test for differences in donation intention.
While the majority of the results were not statically significant, there was, in the New Zealand church sample, a statically significant interaction between humanisation and emotion on the willingness to recommend the charity to a friend. Emotion also had a statistically significant effect on attitude towards the charity and level of recommendation. The covariate guilt was statistically significant and interacted with attitude towards the charity and recommendation. In the MTurk sample, donation intention was higher for high levels of cognitive and affective religiosity. There was also a significant difference in donation intention between those who regularly give to charity, and those who do not. The implications of these results are discussed and are followed by the research implications, limitations, and areas for future research.