Determining earthquake susceptible areas southeast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia—outcrop analysis from structure from motion (SfM) and geographic information system (GIS)
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Located approximately a hundred kilometres north of Java Subduction Zone, Java Island has a complicated geology and geomorphology. The north zone is dominated by the folded area, the centre is dominated by the active volcanic arc and the south of Java including the study area (Southeast part of Yogyakarta City), is dominated by the uplifted southern mountain. In general, the study area is part of the Bantul’s Graben. In the middle part of study area flows the Opak River, which is often associated with normal faults of Opak Fault. The Opak Fault is such a complex fault system which has a complex local fault which can cause worst local site effect when earthquakes occur. However, the geology map of Yogyakarta is the only data that gives the characteristics of Opak Fault roughly. Thus, the effort to identify unchartered fault system needs to be done. The aims of this study are to conduct the outcrop study, to identify the micro faults and to improve the understanding of faults system to support the earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The integrated method of remote sensing, structure from motion (SfM), geographic information system (GIS) and direct outcrop observation was conducted in the study area. Remote sensing was applied to recognize the outcrop location and to extract the nature lineament feature which can be used as fault indicator. The structure from motion was used to support characterising the outcrop in the field, to identify the fault evidence, and to measure the fault displacement on the outcrops. The direct outcrop observation is very useful to reveal the lithofacies characteristics and to reconstruct the lithostratigraphic correlation among the outcrops. Meanwhile, GIS was used to analyse all the data from remote sensing, SfM, and direct outcrop observation. The main findings of this study were as follows: the middle part of study area has the most complicated geologic structure. At least 56 faults evidence with the maximum displacement of 2.39 m was found on the study area. Administratively, the north part of Segoroyoso Village, the middle part of Wonolelo Village, and the middle part of Bawuran village are very unstable and vulnerable to the ground motion amplification due to their faults configuration. The further studies such as geo-electric survey, boreholes survey, and detail geological mapping still need to be conducted in the study area to get better understanding of Opak Fault. Additionally, the carbon testing of charcoal that found in the outcrop and identification of exact location of the ancient eruption source also need to be done.