Nutrition delivery of a model-based ICU glycaemic control system.
Hyperglycaemia is commonplace in the adult intensive care unit (ICU), associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Effective glycaemic control (GC) can reduce morbidity and mortality, but has proven difficult. STAR is a proven, effective model-based ICU GC protocol that uniquely maintains normo-glycaemia by changing both insulin and nutrition interventions to maximise nutrition in the context of GC in the 4.4-8.0 mmol/L range. Hence, the level of nutrition it provides is a time-varying estimate of the patient-specific ability to take up glucose.First, the clinical provision of nutrition by STAR in Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand (N = 221 Patients) is evaluated versus other ICUs, based on the Cahill et al. survey of 158 ICUs. Second, the inter- and intra- patient variation of nutrition delivery with STAR is analysed. Nutrition rates are in terms of percentage of caloric goal achieved.Mean nutrition rates clinically achieved by STAR were significantly higher than the mean and best ICU surveyed, for the first 3 days of ICU stay. There was large inter-patient variation in nutrition rates achieved per day, which reduced overtime as patient-specific metabolic state stabilised. Median intra-patient variation was 12.9%; however, the interquartile range of the mean per-patient nutrition rates achieved was 74.3-98.2%, suggesting patients do not deviate much from their mean patient-specific nutrition rate. Thus, the ability to tolerate glucose intake varies significantly between, rather than within, patients.Overall, STAR's protocol-driven changes in nutrition rate provide higher nutrition rates to hyperglycaemic patients than those of 158 ICUs from 20 countries. There is significant inter-patient variability between patients to tolerate and uptake glucose, where intra-patient variability over stay is much lower. Thus, a best nutrition rate is likely patient specific for patients requiring GC. More importantly, these overall outcomes show high nutrition delivery and safe, effective GC are not exclusive and that restricting nutrition for GC does not limit overall nutritional intake compared to other ICUs.